Blankakrona emberizo

El Vikipedio, la libera enciklopedio
Saltu al: navigado, serĉo
Vikipedio:Kiel legi la taksonomionKiel legi la taksonomion
Blankakrona emberizo
Blankakrona emberizo
Blankakrona emberizo
Biologia klasado
Regno: Animaloj Animalia
Filumo: Ĥorduloj Chordata
Klaso: Birdoj Aves
Ordo: Paseroformaj Passeriformes
Familio: Emberizedoj Emberizidae
Genro: Zonotrichia
Specio: Z. leucophrys
Zonotrichia leucophrys
(Forster, 1772)
Konserva statuso
{{{220px}}}
Konserva statuso: Malplej zorgiga
Aliaj Vikimediaj projektoj
v  d  r
Information icon.svg

La Blankakrona emberizo, Blankakrona zonotriĥoBlankakrona plumzonulo (Zonotrichia leucophrys) estas mezgranda birdospecio membro de la grupo de Amerikaj paseroj indiĝena de Nordameriko kaj membro de la genro de zonotriĥoj, kiu enhavas speciojn de brunstriecaj dorsoj kaj distingaj kapobildoj.

Aspekto[redakti | redakti fonton]

Plenkreskuloj estas 18 cm longaj kaj havas nigrablankajn striojn en kapo, grizajn vizaĝon, nukon, kolzonon kaj subajn partojn, brunajn striecajn suprajn partojn kaj longan brunecan voston. La flugiloj estas brunaj kun strioj kaj la kruroj estas rozkoloraj. Ties bekoj estas rozkoloraj aŭ flavaj kun nigrecaj supra bordo kaj pinto. La okulaj irisoj estas malhelbrunaj kaj estas tre mallarĝa blanka okulringo videbla nur en suba duono ĉar supra koincidas kun blanka superokula strio. Ili estas similaj laŭ aspekto al la Blankgorĝa emberizo sed havas nek la blankajn gorĝajn markojn nek la flavajn bridomakulojn.

Resume oni povas diri, ke temas pri helgriza birdo kun brunecaj supraj partoj kaj tre rimarkinda nigrablanka kontrasta kronobildo konsista el centra mallarĝa blanka kronostrio (de kio venas la komuna nomo Blankakrona emberizo), kaj ambaŭflanke unue larĝa nigra subkrona strizono, blanka larĝa superokula strizono (de kio venas la latina scienca nomo leucophrys, kunmetaĵo de du radikoj de la antikva greka signife respektive “blanka” kaj “brovo”, kio tradukeblus per Blankabrova emberizo) kiu komencas per grizeca brido kaj fina fajna mallarĝa traokula strio ankaŭ post grizeca brido. Tiu nigrablanka kronobildo estus sufiĉa kialo ankaŭ por alternativa nomo Blankanigrakrona emberizo, ne tre taŭga pro troa longeco.

Reproduktado[redakti | redakti fonton]

Ties reprodukta habitato estas arbustecaj areoj de norda Kanado kaj okcidenta Usono. Ili nestumas ĉu malalte en arbustoj aŭ surgrunde sub arbustoj kaj la ino demetas 3-5 brunmarkajn grizajn aŭ verdecbluajn ovojn.

Subspecioj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Estas 5 nune agnoskataj subspecioj de la Blankakrona emberizo (pugetensis, gambelii, nuttalli, oriantha, kaj leucophrys), varie pri migranta kutimaro kaj reprodukta habitato. La nuttalla subspecio estas de konstantaj loĝantaj birdoj en Kalifornio, dum la gambela subspecio povas migri tiom for kiom ĝis la Arkta Cirklo dum la somera reprodukta sezono. Nordaj birdoj migras al suda Usono.

Vaganteco[redakti | redakti fonton]

La Blankakrona emberizo estas tre rara vaganto al Okcidenta Eŭropo. Unu estis en Graflando Cork, Irlando maje de 2003.[1] Alia troviĝis en Norfolk, Anglio januare de 2008.[2] Ankaŭ junulo estis observata en Ona, Norvegio oktobre de 2009.[3] Junulo estis vidata en Surrey, Anglio en majo de 2010.

Kutimaro[redakti | redakti fonton]

Tiuj nearktaj birdoj manĝas surgrunde aŭ en malalta vegetaĵaro, sed foje faras mallongajn flugojn por kapti flugantajn insektojn. Ili manĝas ĉefe semojn, aliajn plantopartojn kaj insektojn. Vintre ili ofte manĝas are.

Migrada alerteco[redakti | redakti fonton]

La Blankakrona emberizo estas konata pro sia natura alerteca mekanismo, kiu permesas ĝin resti veka dum ĝis du semajnoj dummigrado.[4] Tiu efiko estis studata por eblaj homaj aplikoj, kiaj lacego pro laborvicoj aŭ kamionŝoforado.[5][6][7]

Bildoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. Hussey, Harry (2003) The White-crowned Sparrow in County Cork. Birding World 16(5): 203-5
  2. Rare bird found in coastal garden (2008-01-09). Alirita 2008-01-09.
  3. American mob-sparrow declares war on Norway.
  4. It's Wake-Up Time (2003-11-01). Alirita 2010-07-28.
  5. Migratory Sleeplessness in the White-Crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) (2004-07-13). Alirita 2010-07-28.
  6. Alaska sparrow migration mystery (2007-11-06). Alirita 2010-07-28.
  7. Circadian and Masking Control of Migratory Restlessness in Gambel's White-Crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) (2008-02-01). Alirita 2010-07-28.

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Plia legado[redakti | redakti fonton]

Libroj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Chilton, G., M. C. Baker, C. D. Barrentine, and M. A. Cunningham. 1995. White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys). In The Birds of North America, No. 183 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.
  • Kroodsma DE, Baker MC, Baptista LF & Petrinovich L. (1985). Vocal "dialects" in Nuttall's white-crowned sparrow. In Johnston, R F [Editor] Current Ornithology 103-133, 1985. Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, New York.

Tezoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Banks RC. Ph.D. (1962). GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION OF THE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW, ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS. University of California, Berkeley, United States, California.
  • Baptista LF. Ph.D. (1972). DEMES, DISPERSION AND SONG DIALECTS OF SEDENTARY POPULATIONS OF THE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW (ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS NUTTALLI). University of California, Berkeley, United States, California.
  • Blanchard BD. Ph.D. (1939). ENVIRONMENT AND ANNUAL CYCLE IN THE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS (ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS) OF THE PACIFIC SEABOARD. University of California, Berkeley, United States, California.
  • Chilton GD. Ph.D. (1993). Song dialects and mate choice by white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys. University of Calgary (Canada), Canada.
  • Dobson CW. Ph.D. (1973). BEHAVIOR OF THE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW (ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS NUTTALLI) IN A SONG-REINFORCED LABORATORY OPERANT TASK. University of California, Riverside, United States, California.
  • Fugle GN. Ph.D. (1983). BEHAVIORAL DOMINANCE IN WINTERING WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS, ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS GAMBELII: ITS CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES. University of California, Santa Barbara, United States, California.
  • MacDougall-Shackleton EA. Ph.D. (2000). Song dialects, mate choice and population structure in mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha). Princeton University, United States, New Jersey.
  • Norment CJ. Ph.D. (1992). The comparative breeding ecology of the Harris' sparrow (Zonotrichia querula) and white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) in the Northwest Territories, Canada. University of Kansas, United States, Kansas.
  • Patterson TL. Ph.D. (1977). THE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW (ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS NUTTALLI): REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS, ECOLOGY AND TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR. University of California, Riverside, United States, California.
  • Ross AE. Ph.D. (1985). SOCIAL DOMINANCE HIERARCHIES IN CAPTIVE GROUPS OF WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS, ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS LEUCOPHRYS (STATUS DETERMINANTS, STATUS SIGNAL, AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR, INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION, DIFFERENTIAL DISTRIBUTION). Clemson University, United States, South Carolina.

Artikoloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Agatsuma R & Ramenofsky M. (2006). Migratory behaviour of captive white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, differs during autumn and spring migration. Behaviour. vol 143, no Part 10. p. 1219-1240.
  • Baker MC, Cunningham MA & Thompson ADJ. (1984). Cultural and Genetic Differentiation of 2 Subspecies of White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Condor. vol 86, no 4. p. 359-367.
  • Baker MC, Mewaldt LR & Stewart RM. (1981). Demography of White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli. Ecology. vol 62, no 3. p. 636-644.
  • Baker MC, Spitler-Nabors KJ & Bradley DC. (1981). Early Experience Determines Song Dialect Responsiveness of Female Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Science. vol 214, no 4522. p. 819-821.
  • Baker MC & Thompson DB. (1985). Song Dialects of White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli Historical Processes Inferred from Patterns of Geographic Variation. Condor. vol 87, no 1. p. 127-141.
  • Baker MC, Thompson DB & Sherman GL. (1981). Neighbor Stranger Song Discrimination in White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli. Condor. vol 83, no 3. p. 265-267.
  • Baptista LF. (1985). The Functional Significance of Song Sharing in the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 63, no 8. p. 1741-1752.
  • Baptista LF. (1999). Field and laboratory studies of the biology of the White-crowned Sparrow. Poultry & Avian Biology Reviews. vol 10, no 2. p. 101-107.
  • Baptista LF, Bell DA & Trail PW. (1993). Song learning and production in the white-crowned sparrow: Parallels with sexual imprinting. Netherlands Journal of Zoology. vol 43, no 1-2. p. 17-33.
  • Baptista LF & Catchpole CK. (1989). Vocal Mimicry and Interspecific Aggression in Songbirds Experiments Using White-Crowned Sparrow Imitation of Song Sparrow Song. Behaviour. vol 109, no 3-4. p. 247-257.
  • Baptista LF & King JR. (1980). Geographical Variation in Song and Song Dialects of Montane White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Oriantha. Condor. vol 82, no 3. p. 267-284.
  • Baptista LF & Morton ML. (1981). Interspecific Song Acquisition by a White-Crowned Sparrow. Auk. vol 98, no 2. p. 383-385.
  • Baptista LF & Morton ML. (1982). Song Dialects and Mate Selection in Montane White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Oriantha. Auk. vol 99, no 3. p. 537-547.
  • Baptista LF & Petrinovich L. (1984). Social Interaction Sensitive Phases and the Song Template Hypothesis in the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli. Animal Behaviour. vol 32, no 1. p. 172-181.
  • Baptista LF & Petrinovich L. (1986). Egg Production in Hand-Raised White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Condor. vol 88, no 3. p. 379-380.
  • Baptista LF & Petrinovich L. (1986). Song Development in the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys Social Factors and Sex Differences. Animal Behaviour. vol 34, no 5. p. 1359-1371.
  • Barrentine CD & McClure HE. (1993). White-crowned Sparrow shifts winter home range north. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 64, no 4. p. 470-471.
  • Broad RA & Hawley RG. (1980). White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys New-Record to Britain Uk and Ireland. British Birds. vol 73, no 10. p. 466-470.
  • Caraco T. (1982). Aspects of Risk Aversion in Foraging White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Animal Behaviour. vol 30, no 3. p. 719-727.
  • Chilton G. (2003). Cultural evolution and song stereotypy in an isolated population of Montane white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha). Bird Behavior. vol 15, no 2. p. 53-63.
  • Chilton G & Galloway TD. (1995). Fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) from nests of white-crowned sparrows Zonotrichia leucophrys) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Entomologist. vol 127, no 3. p. 443-444.
  • Chilton G & Lein MR. (1996). Song repertoires of Puget Sound white-crowned sparrows Zonotrichia leucophrys pugetensis. Journal of Avian Biology. vol 27, no 1. p. 31-40.
  • Corbin KW & Wilkie PJ. (1988). Genetic Similarities between Subspecies of the White-Crowned Sparrow. Condor. vol 90, no 3. p. 637-647.
  • Cunningham MA. (1986). Dispersal in White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli a Computer Simulation of the Effect of Study-Area Size on Estimates of Local Recruitment. Auk. vol 103, no 1. p. 79-85.
  • Cunningham MA, Baker MC & Boardman TJ. (1987). Microgeographic Song Variation in the Nuttall's White-Crowned Sparrow. Condor. vol 89, no 2. p. 261-275.
  • Desante DF & Baptista LF. (1989). Factors Affecting the Termination of Breeding in Nuttall's White-Crowned Sparrow. Wilson Bulletin. vol 101, no 1. p. 120-124.
  • Fugle GN & Rothstein SI. (1985). Age-Related and Sex-Related Variation in Size and Crown Plumage Brightness in Wintering White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 56, no 4. p. 356-368.
  • Fugle GN, Rothstein SI, Osenberg CW & McGinley MA. (1984). Signals of Status in Wintering White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Gambelii. Animal Behaviour. vol 32, no 1. p. 86-93.
  • Gotmark F. (1993). An experimental study of the importance of plumage coloration in breeding males of the white-crowned sparrow. Ornis Scandinavica. vol 24, no 2. p. 149-154.
  • Hafner DJ & Petersen KE. (1985). Song Dialects and Gene Flow in the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli. Evolution. vol 39, no 3. p. 687-694.
  • Hahn TP & Morton ML. (1995). Repetitive altitudinal migrations before breeding by mountain white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha. American Zoologist. vol 35, no 5.
  • Hahn TP, Sockman KW, Breuner CW & Morton ML. (2004). Facultative altitudinal movements by Mountain White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) in the Sierra Nevada. Auk. vol 121, no 4. p. 1269-1281.
  • Harbison H, Nelson DA & Hahn TP. (1999). Long-term persistence of song dialects in the Mountain White-Crowned Sparrow. Condor. vol 101, no 1. p. 133-148.
  • Heinemann D. (1981). Song Dialects Migration and Population Structure of Puget Sound White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Pugetensis. Auk. vol 98, no 3. p. 512-521.
  • Hill BG & Lein MR. (1985). The Non-Song Vocal Repertoire of the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Condor. vol 87, no 3. p. 327-335.
  • James DK, Petrinovich L, Patterson TL & James AH. (1983). Predation of White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli Nestlings by the Western Terrestrial Garter Snake Thamnophis-Elegans in San-Francisco California USA. Copeia. vol 2, p. 511-513.
  • Kern MD. (1984). Racial Differences in Nests of White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Leucophrys. Condor. vol 86, no 4. p. 455-466.
  • King JR. (1986). The Daily Activity Period of Nesting White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys in Continuous Daylight at 65 Degrees North Compared with Activity Period at Lower Latitudes. Condor. vol 88, no 3. p. 382-384.
  • King JR & Hubbard JD. (1981). Comparative Patterns of Nestling Growth in White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Condor. vol 83, no 4. p. 362-369.
  • Lein MR & Corbin KW. (1990). Song and Plumage Phenotypes in a Contact Zone between Subspecies of the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 68, no 12. p. 2625-2629.
  • Mead PS & Morton ML. (1985). Hatching Asynchrony in the Mountain White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Oriantha a Selected or Incidental Trait?. Auk. vol 102, no 4. p. 781-792.
  • Morton ML. (1984). Sex and Age Ratios in Wintering White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Gambelii. Condor. vol 86, no 1. p. 85-87.
  • Morton ML. (1992). Control of postnuptial molt in the mountain white-crowned sparrow: A perspective from field data. Ornis Scandinavica. vol 23, no 3. p. 322-327.
  • Morton ML. (1992). Effects of Sex and Birth Date on Premigration Biology Migration Schedules Return Rates and Natal Dispersal in the Mountain White-Crowned Sparrow. Condor. vol 94, no 1. p. 117-133.
  • Morton ML. (1997). Natal and breeding dispersal in the mount white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia Leucophrys oriantha. Ardea. vol 85, no 1. p. 145-154.
  • Morton ML. (2002). The mountain white-crowned sparrow: Migration and reproduction at high altitude. Studies in Avian Biology. vol 24, p. 1-236.
  • Morton ML & Pereyra ME. (1987). Autumn Migration of Gambel's White-Crowned Sparrow through Tioga Pass California USA. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 58, no 1. p. 6-21.
  • Morton ML, Pereyra ME, Crandall JD, MacDougall-Shackleton EA & Hahn TP. (2004). Reproductive effort and return rates in the Mountain White-crowned Sparrow. Condor. vol 106, no 1. p. 131-138.
  • Morton ML, Sockman KW & Peterson LE. (1993). Nest predation in the mountain white-crowned sparrow. Condor. vol 95, no 1. p. 72-82.
  • Nelson DA. (1998). Geographic variation in song of Gambel's white-crowned sparrow. Behaviour. vol 135, no 3. p. 321-342.
  • Nelson DA. (1999). Ecological influences on vocal development in the white-crowned sparrow. Animal Behaviour. vol 58, no 1. p. 21-36.
  • Nelson DA. (2000). Song overproduction, selective attrition and song dialects in the white-crowned sparrow. Animal Behaviour. vol 60, no 6. p. 887-898.
  • Nelson DA, Hallberg KI & Soha JA. (2004). Cultural evolution of Puget Sound white-crowned sparrow song dialects. Ethology. vol 110, no 11. p. 879-908.
  • Nelson DA & Soha JA. (2004). Perception of geographical variation in song by male Puget Sound white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys pugetensis. Animal Behaviour. vol 68, no Part 2. p. 395-405.
  • Norment CJ & Fuller ME. (1997). Breeding-season frugivory by Harris sparrows (Zonotrichia querula) and white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) in a low-arctic ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 75, no 5. p. 670-679.
  • Oppenheimer SD, Pereyra ME & Morton ML. (1996). Egg laying in dusky flycatchers and white-crowned sparrow. Condor. vol 98, no 2. p. 428-430.
  • Paletz EM, Thalasinos MN, Suk JM, Obermeyer WH & Benca RM. (2006). Impulsive responding in the migrating White-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Sleep. p. S) A35-A36, 2006.
  • Parsons J & Baptista LF. (1980). Crown Color and Dominance in the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Gambelii. Auk. vol 97, no 4. p. 807-815.
  • Petrinovich L. (1985). Factors Influencing Song Development in the White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Journal of Comparative Psychology. vol 99, no 1. p. 15-29.
  • Petrinovich L. (1988). Individual Stability Local Variability and the Cultural Transmission of Song in White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli. Behaviour. vol 107, no 3-4. p. 208-240.
  • Petrinovich L & Baptista LF. (1984). Song Dialects Mate Selection and Breeding Success in White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli. Animal Behaviour. vol 32, no 4. p. 1078-1088.
  • Petrinovich L & Patterson TL. (1981). The Responses of White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli to Songs of Different Dialects and Subspecies. Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsychologie. vol 57, no 1. p. 1-14.
  • Petrinovich L & Patterson TL. (1982). The White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli Stability Recruitment and Population Structure in the Nuttall Subspecies 1975-1980. Auk. vol 99, no 1. p. 1-14.
  • Petrinovich L & Patterson TL. (1983). The White-Crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli Reproductive Success 1975-1980. Auk. vol 100, no 4. p. 811-825.
  • Pleszcynska W. (1980). Interspecific and Intraspecific Song Discrimination by Zonotrichia-Albicollis and Zonotrichia-Leucophrys. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 58, no 8. p. 1433-1438.
  • Rattenborg NC, Mandt BH, Obermeyer WH, Winsauer PJ, Huber R, Wikelski M & Benca RM. (2004). Migratory sleeplessness in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). PLoS Biology. vol 2, no 7. p. 924-936.
  • Ross AE. (1982). Behavioral Dominance in White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Leucophrys. American Zoologist. vol 22, no 4.
  • Ross AE. (1983). Behavioral Dominance in White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Leucophrys. American Zoologist. vol 23, no 4.
  • Slabbekoorn H, Jesse A & Bell DA. (2003). Microgeographic song variation in island populations of the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys nutalli): Innovation through recombination. Behaviour. vol 140, no 7. p. 947-963.
  • Sockman KW & Hahn TP. (1996). Roost-site selection in the mountain white-crowned sparrow. American Zoologist. vol 36, no 5.
  • Soha JA & Marler P. (2000). A species-specific acoustic cue for selective song learning in the white-crowned sparrow. Animal Behaviour. vol 60, no 3. p. 297-306.
  • Soha JA & Marler P. (2001). Cues for early discrimination of conspecific song in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys). Ethology. vol 107, no 9. p. 813-826.
  • Tomback DF & Baker MC. (1984). Assortative Mating by White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli at Song Dialect Boundaries. Animal Behaviour. vol 32, no 2. p. 465-469.
  • Tomback DF, Thompson DB & Baker MC. (1983). Dialect Discrimination by White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli Reactions to near and Distant Dialects. Auk. vol 100, no 2. p. 452-460.
  • Trail PW & Baptista LF. (1993). The impact of brown-headed cowbird parasitism on populations of the Nuttall's white-crowned sparrow. Conservation Biology. vol 7, no 2. p. 309-315.
  • Trainer JM. (1983). Changes in Song Dialect Distributions and Micro Geographic Variation in Song of White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Nuttalli. Auk. vol 100, no 3. p. 568-582.
  • Valone TJ & Wheelbarger AJ. (1998). The effect of heterospecifics on the group-size effect in white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys). Bird Behavior. vol 12, no 3-4. p. 85-90.
  • Weathers WW, Davidson CL & Morton ML. (2003). Energetics of altricial nestlings in cold climates: Insights from the Mountain White-crowned Sparrow. Condor. vol 105, no 4. p. 707-718.
  • Webb R & King JR. (1984). Nests and Microclimates of the White-Crowned Sparrow a Thermal Analysis on a Geographic Gradient. American Zoologist. vol 24, no 3.
  • Zerba E & Morton ML. (1983). Dynamics of Incubation in Mountain White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Oriantha. Condor. vol 85, no 1. p. 1-11.
  • Zerba E & Morton ML. (1983). The Rhythm of Incubation from Egg Laying to Hatching in Mountain White-Crowned Sparrows Zonotrichia-Leucophrys-Oriantha. Ornis Scandinavica. vol 14, no 3. p. 188-197.