Flavpuga parulio

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Flavpuga parulio
Flavpuga parulio aŭdubona
Flavpuga parulio aŭdubona
Biologia klasado
Regno: Animaloj Animalia
Filumo: Ĥorduloj Chordata
Klaso: Birdoj Aves
Ordo: Paseroformaj Passeriformes
Familio: Paruliedoj Parulidae
Genro: Dendroica
Specio: 'D. coronata'
Dendroica coronata
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Konserva statuso
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Konserva statuso: Malplej zorgiga
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Kvar proksime rilataj birdoformoj de Nordameriko — la orienta Mirtoparulio (ssp coronata), ties okcidenta ekvivalento, Aŭdubona parulio (ssp grupo auduboni), la de Nordokcidenta Meksikio Nigrafrunta parulio (ssp nigrifrons), kaj la de Gvatemalo Goldmana parulio (ssp goldmani)— estas kutime arigitaj kiel specio Flavpuga parulio (Dendroica coronata).

Klasifikado[redakti | redakti fonton]

Ekde 1973, la American Ornithological Union decidis arigi tiujn paserinajn birdojn kiel ununura specio. La Mirta kaj Aŭdubona formoj estis ŝajne separataj pro glaciaĵo dum la lasta glaciepoko, kaj disvolvigis distingajn fizikajn karakterojn. Kiam oni montris tamen ke ili povas interreproduktiĝi, ne estis plu konsiderataj kiel separataj specioj. La du mezamerikaj subspecioj, nome goldmani kaj nigrifrons estas loĝantaj birdoj kaj diverĝis el la norda migranta subspecio en la Plejstoceno, kaj tiele probable reprezentas separatajn speciojn.

Distribuado[redakti | redakti fonton]

La Flavpuga parulio reproduktiĝas el orienta Nordameriko okcidenten al la Pacifiko, kaj suden el tie al Okcidenta Meksikio. Flavpuga parulio de "Goldman" estas endemia de altaj teroj de Gvatemalo. Ĝi estas migranta birdo kiu veturas al Centrameriko kaj Karibio por vintrumado. Inter paruliedoj ĝi estas unu el la lastaj elirantaj el Nordameriko aŭtune, kaj inter la unuaj kiuj revenas. Ĝi estas eventuala vaganto en la Brita Insularo kaj Islando.

Aspekto[redakti | redakti fonton]

Someraj maskloj de ambaŭ formoj havas striecajn dorsojn je nigro super ardezblueca fono (nigraj plumoj kun helaj bordoj), blankajn flugilmakulojn, striecajn brustojn, kaj rimarkindajn flavajn makulojn en krono, flankoj kaj pugo, el kiuj la lasta ege kontrastas kun la senkolora fono kaj nomigas la specion, dum la latina scienca nomo aludas al la makulo en krono, malpli rimarkinda. La Flavpuga parulio de Aŭdubono montras ankaŭ flavan makulon en gorĝo, dum la Mirta parulio havas blankajn gorĝon kaj okulstrion, kaj tre kontrastan nigran vangomakulon. Inoj de ambaŭ formoj estas pli senkoloraj, kun brunstriecaj frunto kaj dorso, sed havas ankaŭ rimarkindajn flavajn pugojn. La Goldmana parulio de Gvatemalo similas al tiu Aŭdubona sed havas blankan suban bordon en la flava gorĝo kaj krome pli malhelan plumaron; maskloj anstataŭas la ardezbluecon de Aŭdubona al nigro.

Kutimoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Tiuj birdoj estas ĉefe insektovoraj, kvankam cimoj malabundas, la Mirta parulio manĝas ankaŭ la berojn de mirikomirto el kio ricevas sian nomon. Ili ofte ekflugetas, kvazaŭ muŝkaptuledoj, for el siaj ripozejoj per mallongaj akrobatecaj ekflugeroj serĉe de insektoj.

Ili nestumas en koniferaj kaj miksitaj arbaroj. La ino demetas 4-5 ovojn en tasforma nesto.

La Flavpuga parulio havas trilecan kanton de 4-7 silaboj (tiŭ-tiŭ-tiŭ-tiŭ, tiŭ-tiŭ-tiŭ) kaj eventuale notalvokon ĉekĉip.

Bildaro[redakti | redakti fonton]

Referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Plia legado[redakti | redakti fonton]

Libroj[redakti | redakti fonton]

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Tezoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

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