Grandavosta kviskalo

El Vikipedio, la libera enciklopedio
Saltu al: navigado, serĉo
Vikipedio:Kiel legi la taksonomionKiel legi la taksonomion
Grandavosta kviskalo
Grandavosta kviskalo
Grandavosta kviskalo
Biologia klasado
Regno: Animaloj Animalia
Filumo: Ĥorduloj Chordata
Klaso: Birdoj Aves
Ordo: Paseroformaj Passeriformes
Familio: Ikteredoj Icteridae
Genro: Quiscalus
Specio: 'Qu. mexicanus'
Quiscalus mexicanus
(JF Gmelin, 1788)
Konserva statuso
{{{220px}}}
Konserva statuso: Malplej zorgiga
Aliaj Vikimediaj projektoj
v  d  r
Information icon.svg

La Grandavosta kviskaloLongavosta kviskalo (Quiscalus mexicanus) estas granda paserina birdo de la familio de Ikteredoj kaj genro de Kviskaloj, kiu enhavas ses vivantajn speciojn de tre brilaj nigraj birdoj. Ĝi estas ofte misprenata kaj konfuzata kiel membro de la familio de la Korvedoj. Simile ĝi ricevas ofte la nomon "cuervo" (korvo) en areoj de Meksikio kie ne estas veraj korvoj.

Ties teritorio etendas el Kansaso en nordoriento al suda Kalifornio nordokcidente suden al nordokcidenta Peruo kaj nordokcidenta Venezuelo sude; la kviskala teritorio etendiĝis norden kaj okcidenten en ĵusaj jaroj. Ĝi estas komuna en Teksaso kaj Arizono en ties sudaj regionoj. Ĝi komune troviĝas en agrikulturaj regionoj kaj ĉeurbaj setlejoj, kie manĝas fruktojn, semojn kaj senvertebrulojn.

Ino

Estas konsiderinda granda seksa dimorfismo en tiu specio. Maskloj atingas ĝis 43 cm, inklude voston kiu estas preskaŭ tiom longa kiom la korpo, pezas 230 g, kaj estas nigraj kun violblua irizeca brilo en plumoj. Inoj estas multe pli malgrandaj nome 33 cm, pezas ĉirkaŭ 125 g, kaj estas ĉefe brunecnigraj, kun palbrunaj gorĝo kaj ventro.

Tiu birdo havas grandan varion de raŭkaj kaj kakofonaj alvokoj, kaj estas amplekse konsiderata bruema plagospecio, kvankam ties etendo ne estis helpata de homa enmeto (kompare kun la Eŭropa sturno).

La Grandavosta kviskalo kaj la Marmarĉa kviskalo estis iam konsiderataj kiel la sama specio.

Kelkaj specioj de kviskaloj, kutime la Grandavosta kviskalo, estas konfuzataj kun Larĝbeka korvo kiam homoj nespertaj pri birdidentigo identigas mortintan nigran birdon. Tio kutime okazas kiam oni bezonas identigi birdojn kiel kandidatoj al infekto de Okcidentnila viruso.

Referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Plia legado[redakti | redakti fonton]

Libro[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Johnson, K., and B. D. Peer. 2001. Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). In The Birds of North America, No. 576 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Tezoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Carlson SJ. Ph.D. (1983). THE BIOENERGETICS OF ROOST SITE SELECTION FOR GREAT-TAILED GRACKLES (TEXAS). Texas A&M University, United States, Texas.
  • Hanson MT. Ph.D. (1976). MOVEMENT PATTERNS, FLOCK PARAMETERS, AND HABITAT SELECTION IN THE GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE. Texas A&M University, United States, Texas.
  • Kok OB. Ph.D. (1970). BEHAVIOUR OF THE GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (QUISCALUS MEXICANUS). The University of Texas at Austin, United States, Texas.
  • Teather KL. Ph.D. (1988). Sexual size dimorphism in great-tailed grackles: The costs of sons and daughters. Carleton University (Canada), Canada.
  • Wehtje W. Ph.D. (2004). The great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus Gmelin) in the Western United States of America: Range expansion and secondary contact between subspecies. University of California, Riverside, United States, California.

Artikoloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Arnold KA & Folse LJJ. (1977). Movements of the Great-Tailed Grackle in Texas. Wilson Bulletin. vol 89, no 4. p. 602-608.
  • Avise JC & Zink RM. (1988). Molecular Genetic Divergence between Avian Sibling Species King and Clapper Rails Long-Billed and Short-Billed Dowitchers Boat-Tailed and Great-Tailed Grackles and Tufted and Black-Crested Titmice. Auk. vol 105, no 3. p. 516-528.
  • Bock CE & Bock JH. (2002). Numerical response of grassland birds to cattle ranching versus exurban development in southeastern Arizona. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts. vol 87, no 79.
  • Brown BT & Trosset MW. (1989). Nesting-Habitat Relationships of Riparian Birds Along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon Arizona USA. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 34, no 2. p. 260-270.
  • Cabrera Pena J. (1998). Predation of newborn Lepidochelys olivacea (Reptilia: Cheloniidae) by Quiscalus mexicanus (Passeriformes: Icteridae). Revista de Biologia Tropical. vol 46, no 3. p. 845-846.
  • Casler CL & Este EE. (1996). Mangrove avifauna on Ana Maria Campos Peninsula, Straits of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Boletin del Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas Universidad del Zulia. vol 30, no 1. p. 9-44.
  • Christensen AF. (2000). The fifteenth- and twentieth-century colonization of the Basin of Mexico by the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). Global Ecology & Biogeography. vol 9, no 5. p. 415-420.
  • Clapp RB. (1986). Great-Tailed Grackle Kills Barn Swallow in Flight. Wilson Bulletin. vol 98, no 4. p. 614-615.
  • Cook AG. (1984). Birds of the Desert Region of Uintah County Utah USA. Great Basin Naturalist. vol 44, no 4. p. 584-620.
  • Davis WR, II & Arnold KA. (1972). Food Habits of the Great Tailed Grackle in Brazos County Texas. Condor. vol 74, no 4. p. 439-446.
  • Dinsmore JJ. (1998). Iowa's avifauna: Recent changes and prospects for the future. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science. vol 105, no 3. p. 115-122.
  • Dinsmore JJ & Dinsmore SJ. (1993). Range expansion of the great-tailed grackle in the 1900s. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science. vol 100, no 2. p. 54-59.
  • Elder DH. (1988). Great-Tailed Grackle New to Ontario Canada. Ontario Birds. vol 6, no 1. p. 28-31.
  • Faanes CA & Norling W. (1981). Nesting of the Great-Tailed Grackle Quiscalus-Mexicanus in Nebraska USA. American Birds. vol 35, no 2. p. 148-149.
  • Guillory HD. (1977). Spread of the Great-Tailed Grackle in Southwestern Louisiana. Wilson Bulletin. vol 89, no 3. p. 483-485.
  • Guillory HD, Deshotels JH & Guillory C. (1981). Great-Tailed Grackle Quiscalus-Mexicanus Reproduction in South Central Louisiana USA. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 52, no 4. p. 325-331.
  • Guillory HD, Deshotels JH & Guillory C. (1981). GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE REPRODUCTION IN SOUTHCENTRAL LOUISIANA. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 52, no 4. p. 325-331.
  • Haemig PD. (1978). Aztec Emperor Auitzotl and the Great-Tailed Grackle. Biotropica. vol 10, no 1. p. 11-17.
  • Hansen MT. (1976). A Great-Tailed Grackle Captures and Kills a House Sparrow. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 21, no 2. p. 240-241.
  • Holmes JA, Dobkin DS & Wilcox BA. (1985). 2ND NESTING RECORD AND NORTHWARD ADVANCE OF THE GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (QUISCALUS-MEXICANUS) IN NEVADA. Great Basin Naturalist. vol 45, no 3. p. 483-484.
  • Holmes JA, Dobkin DS & Wilcox BA. (1985). Second Nesting Record and Northward Advance of the Great-Tailed Grackle Quiscalus-Mexicanus in Nevada USA. Great Basin Naturalist. vol 45, no 3. p. 483-484.
  • Howell SNG & Pyle P. (1993). New and noteworthy bird records from Baja California, Mexico, October 1991. Western Birds. vol 24, no 1. p. 57-62.
  • Jackson J. (1985). The Dunking Habit of Common Grackles Quiscalus-Quiscula Insight Learning or Innate Behavior?. American Birds. vol 39, no 3. p. 261-262.
  • Jennings MR. (1984). Predation of Sonoran Spotted Whiptails Cnemidophorus-Sonorae Teiidae by the Great-Tailed Grackle Quiscalus-Mexicanus Icteridae. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 29, no 4.
  • Johnson DB, Guthery FS & Koerth NE. (1989). Grackle Damage to Grapefruit in the Lower Rio Grande Valley Texas USA. Wildlife Society Bulletin. vol 17, no 1. p. 46-50.
  • Johnson K, DuVal E, Kielt M & Hughes C. (2000). Male mating strategies and the mating system of great-tailed grackles. Behavioral Ecology. vol 11, no 2. p. 132-141.
  • Johnson K, Kielt M, Duval E & Hughes C. (1997). The genetic mating system of great-tailed grackles. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. vol 78, no 4 SUPPL.
  • Kok OB. (1971). Vocal Behavior of the Great-Tailed Grackle Quiscalus-Mexicanus-Prosopidicola. Condor. vol 73, no 3. p. 348-363.
  • Mahrdt CR & Barber RL. (1999). Sceloporus occidentalis longipes (Great Basin fence lizard). Herpetological Review. vol 30, no 1.
  • Mitchell CA, White DH, Kolbe EJ & Biever RC. (1984). Dicrotophos Poisoning of Great-Tailed Grackles Quiscalus-Mexicanus in Texas USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. vol 20, no 3. p. 256-257.
  • Mora MA & Anderson DW. (1995). Selenium, boron, and heavy metals in birds from the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology. vol 54, no 2. p. 198-206.
  • Patten MA, Erickson RA & Unitt P. (2004). Population changes and biogeographic affinities of the birds of the Salton Sink, California/Baja California. Studies in Avian Biology. vol 27, p. 24-32.
  • Peer BD, Rothstein SI & Rivers JW. (2005). First record of Bronzed Cowbird parasitism on the Great-tailed Grackle. Wilson Bulletin. vol 117, no 2. p. 194-196.
  • Peer BD & Sealy SG. (2000). Conspecific brood parasitism and egg rejection in Great-tailed Grackles. Journal of Avian Biology. vol 31, no 3. p. 271-277.
  • Peer BD & Sealy SG. (2001). Mechanism of egg recognition in the great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). Bird Behavior. vol 14, no 2. p. 71-73.
  • Peer BD & Sealy SG. (2004). Fate of grackle (Quiscalus spp) defenses in the absence of brood parasitism: Implications for long-term parasite-host coevolution. Auk. vol 121, no 4. p. 1172-1186.
  • Pena JC. (1998). Quiscalus mexicanus (Passeriformes : Icteridae) predates on Lepidochelys olivacea (Reptilla : Cheloniidae) neonates. Revista De Biologia Tropical. vol 46, no 3. p. 845-846.
  • Rutledge JT & Chandler RS. (1979). Nest Site Competition between Red-Winged Blackbirds Agelaius-Phoeniceus and Great-Tailed Grackles Quiscalus-Mexicanus. Auk. vol 96, no 4.
  • Scheuering EJ & Ivey GL. (1995). First nesting record of the Great-tailed Grackle in Oregon. Wilson Bulletin. vol 107, no 3. p. 562-563.
  • Selander RK, Yang SY & Cantu G. (1969). Extension of Zone of Sympatry of Quiscalus-Mexicanus and Quiscalus-Major. Condor. vol 71, no 4. p. 435-436.
  • Shawkey MD, Hauber ME, Estep LK & Hill GE. (2006). Evolutionary transitions and mechanisms of matte and iridescent plumage coloration in grackles and allies (Icteridae). Journal of the Royal Society Interface. vol 3, no 11. p. 777-786.
  • Slagsvold T, Husby M & Sandvik J. (1992). GROWTH AND SEX-RATIO OF NESTLINGS IN 2 SPECIES OF CROWS - HOW IMPORTANT IS HATCHING ASYNCHRONY. Oecologia. vol 90, no 1. p. 43-49.
  • Smith JNM. (1977). Feeding Rates Search Paths and Surveillance for Predators in Great-Tailed Grackle Flocks. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 55, no 6. p. 891-898.
  • Stepney PHR. (1975). FIRST RECORDED BREEDING OF GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE IN COLORADO. Condor. vol 77, no 2. p. 208-210.
  • Teather KL. (1987). Intersexual Differences in Food Consumption by Hand-Reared Great-Tailed Grackle Quiscalus-Mexicanus Nestlings. Auk. vol 104, no 4. p. 635-639.
  • Teather KL. (1989). Sex and Egg Size in Great-Tailed Grackles. Condor. vol 91, no 1. p. 203-205.
  • Teather KL. (1990). The Influence of Sibling Gender on the Growth and Survival of Great-Tailed Grackle Nestlings. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 68, no 9. p. 1925-1930.
  • Teather KL & Weatherhead PJ. (1988). Sex-Specific Energy Requirements of Great-Tailed Grackle Quiscalus-Mexicanus Nestlings. Journal of Animal Ecology. vol 57, no 2. p. 659-668.
  • Teather KL & Weatherhead PJ. (1989). Sex-Specific Mortality in Nestling Great-Tailed Grackles. Ecology. vol 70, no 5. p. 1485-1493.
  • Weatherhead PJ & Teather KL. (1991). ARE SKEWED FLEDGLING SEX-RATIOS IN SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BIRDS ADAPTIVE. Am Nat. vol 138, no 5. p. 1159-1172.
  • Wehtje W. (2003). The range expansion of the great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus Gmelin) in North America since 1880. Journal of Biogeography. vol 30, no 10. p. 1593-1607.
  • White CM, Frost HH, Shirley DL, Webb GM & Porter RD. (1983). Bird Distributional and Breeding Records for Southeastern Idaho Utah and Adjacent Regions USA. Great Basin Naturalist. vol 43, no 4. p. 717-727.