Kaŝtanflanka parulio

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Kaŝtanflanka parulio
Kaŝtanflanka parulio
Kaŝtanflanka parulio
Biologia klasado
Regno: Animaloj Animalia
Filumo: Ĥorduloj Chordata
Klaso: Birdoj Aves
Ordo: Paseroformaj Passeriformes
Familio: Paruliedoj Parulidae
Genro: Dendroica
Specio: 'D. pensylvanica'
Dendroica pensylvanica
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Konserva statuso
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Konserva statuso: Malplej zorgiga
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Masklo, Otavo, Ontario

La Kaŝtanflanka parulio (Dendroica pensylvanica) estas birdospecio de la familio de Paruliedoj kaj granda genro Dendroica.

Disvastiĝo[redakti | redakti fonton]

Ili reproduktigas en orienta Nordameriko kaj en suda Kanado okcidenten ĝis la Kanadaj Prerioj. Ili reproduktiĝas ankaŭ en la regiono de la Grandaj Lagoj kaj en orienta Usono.

Tiuj nearktaj birdoj estas migrantaj, kiuj vintras en Centrameriko suden al norda Kolombio[1], kun nekonfirmita vidaĵo el tiom sude kiom el Ekvadoro; ili estas ankaŭ tre raraj vagantoj en okcidentan Eŭropon.

Maskla plenkreskulo, somere (supre)
Juna masklo (centre)
Plenkreskulo, vintra (sube)

Aspekto[redakti | redakti fonton]

Somere masklo de Kaŝtanflanka parulio estas nekonfuzebla laŭ aspekto. Li montras malhele striecan grizan dorson (nigraj plumoj kun flavaj bordoj), blankan vizaĝon kun el beko nigraj okulstrio al nuko kaj kolstrio suben (tiele restas granda blanka orelareo) kaj flavverdecan kronon kun mallarĝa blankeca frunta bordo. Ties subaj partoj estas blankaj, kun tre markate brunaj flankoj (kaŝtankoloraj), kaj ĝi havas ankaŭ du blankajn flugilstriojn. Inoj similas al eluzitaj versioj de somera masklo, kaj ĉefe, ino ne havas la markatan kapobildon kaj ankaŭ havas malpli da bruna koloro en flankoj. La beko estas rekta kaj pintakra. La kruroj estas grizecaj.

Nereproduktuloj de ambaŭ seksoj havas verdecajn kapojn, kaj verdecajn suprajn partojn kiuj estas kutime nestriecaj. Ili havas ankaŭ nestriecajn palgrizajn brustojn. Ties flugilstrioj estas ĉiam en ties plumaroj. Manko de strieco helpas distingi tiun specion el la Stria parulio for de la reprodukta sezono.

Kutimaro[redakti | redakti fonton]

La kantoj estas fajfaj pliis, pliis, pliis tumiĉ. Ties alvokoj estas akraj ĉip. La tasforma nesto estas situa en malalta arbusto, kutime en juna decidua arbaroarbustaro. La ino demetas 3-5 ovojn. Tiu specio estas ofte parazitita de la Brunkapa molotro.

Kaŝtanflankaj parulioj estas insektovoraj, sed tio inkludas berojn en ties vintra dieto[2]. Ili manĝas aktive en arbustoj kaj malgrandaj arboj, kaj foje kaptas insektojn perfluge.

La nombroj de tiu birdospecio pliiĝis dum duarangaj arbaroj iĝis pli komunaj oriente fine de la 19a jarcento; ties nombroj iom malpliiĝis ekde tiam.

Notoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. Strewe & Navarro (2004)
  2. Ekz. Tiuj de Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae); tiaj arboj povas esti uzataj por allogi vintrajn birdojn en ĝardenojn kaj parkojn: Foster (2007)

Referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Plia legado[redakti | redakti fonton]

Tezoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

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Artikoloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

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