Miksa kunmanĝantaro

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Miksa kunmanĝantaro, aŭ neformale birdotajdo, estas birdaro de kutime insektovoraj birdoj de diferencaj specioj, kiuj ariĝas kaj moviĝas kune dum manĝado.[1] Tio estas diferenca koncepto el manĝantaro, konsista nur je ariĝ de kelkaj specioj de birdoj je areoj de loke alta manĝo disponeblo.

Miksa kunmanĝantaro tipe havas "nuklearan" (kernan) specion kiu ŝjne estas centra por la formado kaj movado. La aliaj specioj estas nomataj "atendantaj". Atendantaj tendencas kuniĝi al la Miksa kunmanĝantaro nur kiam la aro eniras en ties teritorio.[2]

Notoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. Graves & Gotelli (1993)
  2. Faaborg, John (1988) Ornithology: an ecological approach. Prentice Hall. pp. 219-221

Referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Backhouse, Francis (2005): Chapter 7: Relationships with Other Species. In: Woodpeckers of North America. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55407-046-5 HTML excerpt
  • Blume, Dieter & Winkler, Hans (2003): Woodpeckers. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Goodale, Eben & Kotagama, Sarath W. (2006): Vocal mimicry by a passerine bird attracts other species involved in mixed-species flocks. Animal Behaviour 72(2): 471-477. COI:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.02.004 PDF fulltext
  • Graves, Gary R. & Gotelli, N.J. (1993) Assembly of avian mixed-species flocks in Amazonia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90(4): 1388-1391. PDF fulltext
  • Paul R. Ehrlich; Dobkin, David S. & Wheye, Darryl (1988): Mixed-Species Flocking. Retrieved 2006-FEB-24.
  • Evans, Karl & Turner, Angela K. (2003): Swallows. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Howell, Steven N.G. & Webb, Sophie (1995): A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York. ISBN 0-19-854012-4
  • Kemp, Alan & Grimes, Llewellyn G. (2003): Cuckoo-shrikes. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
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  • Martins, Thaís & Mead, Christopher J. (2003): Swifts. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Matthysen, Erik & Löhrl, Hans (2003): Nuthatches. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Mead, Christopher J. (2003): Gnatcatchers. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Nuytemans, H. (1998): Notes on Philippine birds: interesting records from northern Luzon and Batan Island. Forktail 14: 39-42. PDF fulltext
  • Storrs Olson & Alvarenga, Herculano M. F. (2006): An extraordinary feeding assemblage of birds at a termite swarm in the Serra da Mantiqueira, São Paulo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14(3): 297-299 [Angla kun portugala resumo]. PDF fulltext
  • Parry, Stephen J. & Hutson, A.M. (2003): Gnateaters. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Ragusa-Netto, J. (2000): Raptors and "campo-cerrado" bird mixed flock led by Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Emberizidae: Thraupinae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 60(3): 461-467 [Angla kun portugala resumo. COI:10.1590/S0034-71082000000300011 PDF fulltext
  • Rice, Nathan H. & Hutson, A.M. (2003): Antbirds. In: Chris Perrins (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Sridhar, Hari & Sankar, K. (2008): Effects of habitat degradation on mixed-species bird flocks in Indian rain forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24(2): 135-147. COI:10.1017/S0266467408004823 (HTML abstract)
  • Thiollay, J.-M. (1999): Frequency of mixed species flocking in tropical forest birds and correlates of predation risk: An intertropical comparison. Journal of Avian Biology 30(3): 271-281. HTML abstract and first page text