Vesperpasero

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Vesperpasero
Vesperpasero
Vesperpasero
Biologia klasado
Regno: Animaloj Animalia
Filumo: Ĥorduloj Chordata
Klaso: Birdoj Aves
Ordo: Paseroformaj Passeriformes
Familio: Emberizedoj Emberizidae
Genro: Pooecetes
Specio: P. gramineus
Pooecetes gramineus
(Gmelin, 1789)
Konserva statuso
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Konserva statuso: Malplej zorgiga
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La Vesperpasero, Pooecetes gramineus, estas specio de mezgranda birdo de la familio de Emberizedoj. Ĝi estas monotipa en la genro Pooecetes (Baird 1858).

Plenkreskulo havas helbrunajn suprajn partojn kaj helajn sablokolorajn subajn partojn, ambaŭ kun pli malhela strieco nigreca en dorso kaj per izolitaj strioj en brusto dise el supra centra malhela makulo. Ili havas blankajn okulringon, gorĝon kaj mustaĉan strion kiu pluas sub kaj ĉirkaŭ bruna vango, kaj pli svagan helan superokulan strizonon. Ili havas ankaŭ longan malhelbrunan voston kiu montras blankajn eksterajn vostoplumojn dumfluge. En malhelbrunaj flugiloj videblas ripoze po du blankaj flugilstrioj ne tre markataj. La beko estas fortika kaj karnokolora kun pli nigreca supra bordo. La kruroj estas rozkolorecaj.

Ties reprodukta habitato estas malfermaj herbejaj areoj tra plej parto de Nordameriko, inklude ĉeŝoseajn areojn kaj stoplejojn, kaj ili disvastiĝas kaj reproduktiĝas tra suda Kanado kaj Usono. Tiuj birdoj migras al suda kaj centra Usono kaj ĉefe al suda Meksikio.

La Vesperpasero estas ĝenerale malpli timida ol multaj el la herbejaj paseroj, kaj povas esti vidata ofte dumkante. Ili nomiĝas tiele en la komuna nomo pro supozata kutimo kanti pli fiere dum vespero, kvankam fakte ili kantas je iu ajn tagohoro. La masklo kantas el alta ripozejo, kia arbusto aŭ telefonfosto, kio indikas ties posedrajton de la reprodukta teritorio. La muzikeca kanto komencas per du paroj de ripetataj fajfaj notoj kaj finas per serio de trilaĵoj, iome similaj al tiu de la Kantopasero. Ili emas baniĝi sur polvo, ofte uzante la nudan grundon de kampo aŭ malpura vojo.

Tiuj birdoj manĝas surgrunde plej ofte en malgrandaj aroj, ĉefe insektojn (ĉefe somere kune kun araneoj kaj aliaj malgrandaj senvertebruloj) kaj semojn (ĉefe vintre). For de la reprodukta sezono ili ofte manĝas en malgrandaj aroj. La reprodukta sezono daŭras el majo al julio. La nesto estas malferma tasformo surgrunde sub herbotufo.

La nombroj de tiu birdo malpliiĝas en la orientaj partoj de ties teritorio pro habitatoperdo.

Referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Plia legado[redakti | redakti fonton]

Libro[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Jones, S. L., and J. E. Cornely. 2002. Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus). In The Birds of North America, No. 624 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Tezoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Castrale JS. Ph.D. (1981). USE OF MANAGED SAGEBRUSH GRASSLANDS BY BIRD POPULATIONS. Brigham Young University, United States -- Utah.
  • Kirkpatrick CK. M.S. (1999). Trends in grassland bird abundance following prescribed burning in southern Arizona. The University of Arizona, United States -- Arizona.
  • Klippenstine DR. M.Sc. (2005). Can egg mimicry by Brown-headed Cowbirds explain the acceptance of brood parasitism by grassland passerines?. University of Manitoba (Canada), Canada.
  • Krueger HO. M.S. (1981). BREEDING ADAPTATIONS OF THE VESPER SPARROW (POOECETES GRAMINEUS) IN A FIRE-ALTERED ECOSYSTEM. Central Michigan University, United States -- Michigan.
  • McIntyre KK. M.S. (2003). Species composition and beta diversity of avian communities along a burned/unburned gradient in sagebrush steppe habitat at Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. Sul Ross State University, United States -- Texas.
  • Petersen KL. Ph.D. (1986). AVIAN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN A SAGEBRUSH COMMUNITY: BIRD RESPONSES TO FIRE AND TERRITORY DYNAMICS IN A SPARROW POPULATION (IDAHO). Iowa State University, United States -- Iowa.
  • Randell SM. M.S. (1996). A study of avian populations and behavior at a proposed wind energy production facility near Fort Davis, Texas. Sul Ross State University, United States -- Texas.
  • Vickery PD. Ph.D. (1993). Habitat selection of grassland birds in Maine. The University of Maine, United States -- Maine.

Artikoloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Adams JS, Knight RL, McEwen LC & George TL. (1994). Survival and growth of nestling Vesper Sparrows exposed to experimental food reductions. Condor. vol 96, no 3. p. 739-748.
  • Best LB & Rodenhouse NL. (1984). Territory Preference of Vesper Sparrows Pooecetes-Gramineus in Cropland. Wilson Bulletin. vol 96, no 1. p. 72-82.
  • Bledsoe AH. (1988). Nuclear DNA Evolution and Phylogeny of the New World Nine-Primaried Oscines. Auk. vol 105, no 3. p. 504-515.
  • Bock CE & Bock JH. (1992). Response of Birds to Wildfire in Native Versus Exotic Arizona Grassland. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 37, no 1. p. 73-81.
  • Bock CE, Bock JH & Bennett BC. (1995). The avifauna of remnant tallgrass prairie near Boulder, Colorado. Prairie Naturalist. vol 27, no 3. p. 147-157.
  • Boutin C, Freemark KE & Kirk DA. (1999). Farmland birds in southern Ontario: Field use, activity patterns and vulnerability to pesticide use. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. p. 22, 1999.
  • Camp M & Best LB. (1993). Bird abundance and species richness in roadsides adjacent to Iowa rowcrop fields. Wildlife Society Bulletin. vol 21, no 3. p. 315-325.
  • Camp M & Best LB. (1994). Nest density and nesting success of birds in roadsides adjacent to rowcrop fields. American Midland Naturalist. vol 131, no 2. p. 347-358.
  • Carson RJ & Spicer GS. (2003). A phylogenetic analysis of the emberizid sparrows based on three mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. vol 29, no 1. p. 43-57.
  • Castrale JS. (1982). Effects of 2 Sagebrush Artemisia-Spp Control Methods on Nongame Birds. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 46, no 4. p. 945-952.
  • Cosens SE & Falls JB. (1984). A Comparison of Sound Propagation and Song Frequency in Temperate Marsh and Grassland Habitats. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology. vol 15, no 3. p. 161-170.
  • Davis MA, Peterson DW, Reich PB, Crozier M, Query T, Mitchell E, Huntington J & Bazakas P. (2000). Restoring savanna using fire: Impact on the breeding bird community. Restoration Ecology. vol 8, no 1. p. 30-40.
  • Falardeau G & Desgranges JL. (1991). Habitat Preferences and Recent Fluctuations in Populations of Farmland Birds in Quebec. Canadian Field Naturalist. vol 105, no 4. p. 469-482.
  • Flickinger EL, White DH, Mitchell CA & Lamont TG. (1984). Monocrotophos and Dicrotophos Residues in Birds as a Result of Misuse of Organophosphates in Matagorda County Texas USA. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. vol 67, no 4. p. 827-828.
  • George TL, Fowler AC, Knight RL & McEwen LC. (1992). Impacts of a Severe Drought on Grassland Birds in Western North Dakota. Ecological Applications. vol 2, no 3. p. 275-284.
  • Gordon CE. (2000). Movement patterns of wintering grassland sparrows in Arizona. Auk. vol 117, no 3. p. 748-759.
  • Grant TA, Madden EM, Shaffer TL, Pietz PJ, Berkey GB & Kadrmas NJ. (2006). Nest survival of clay-colored and vesper sparrows in relation to woodland edge in mixed-grass prairies. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 70, no 3. p. 691-701.
  • Grant TA, Shaffer TL, Madden EM & Pietz PJ. (2005). Time-specific variation in passerine nest survival: New insights into old questions. Auk. vol 122, no 2. p. 661-672.
  • Haire SL, Bock CE, Cade BS & Bennett BC. (2000). The role of landscape and habitat characteristics in limiting abundance of grassland nesting songbirds in an urban open space. Landscape & Urban Planning. vol 48, no 1-2. p. 65-82.
  • Ingelfinger F & Anderson S. (2004). Passerine response to roads associated with natural gas extraction in a sagebrush steppe habitat. Western North American Naturalist. vol 64, no 3. p. 385-395.
  • Jobin B, DesGranges JL & Boutin C. (1998). Farmland habitat use by breeding birds in southern Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist. vol 112, no 4. p. 611-618.
  • Johnson OW & Ohmart RD. (1973). The Renal Medulla and Water Economy in Vesper Sparrows Pooecetes-Gramineus. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A. vol 44, no 2. p. 655-661.
  • Jones ZF & Bock CE. (2002). Conservation of grassland birds in an urbanizing landscape: A historical perspective. Condor. vol 104, no 3. p. 643-651.
  • Kerley LL & Anderson SH. (1995). Songbird responses to sagebrush removal in a high elevation sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Prairie Naturalist. vol 27, no 3. p. 129-146.
  • Kirkpatrick C, DeStefano S, Mannan RW & Lloyd J. (2002). Trends in abundance of grassland birds following a spring prescribed burn in southern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 47, no 2. p. 282-292.
  • Knapton RW & Mineau P. (1995). Effects of granular formulations of terbufos and fonofos applied to cornfields on mortality and reproductive success of songbirds. Ecotoxicology. vol 4, no 2. p. 138-153.
  • McMaster DG, Devries JH & Davis SK. (2005). Grassland birds nesting in haylands of southern Saskatchewan: Landscape influences and conservation priorities. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 69, no 1. p. 211-221.
  • Miller SG, Knight RL & Miller CK. (2001). Wildlife responses to pedestrians and dogs. Wildlife Society Bulletin. vol 29, no 1. p. 124-132.
  • Noson AC, Schmitz RA & Miller RF. (2006). Influence of fire and Juniper encroachment on birds in high-elevation sagebrush steppe. Western North American Naturalist. vol 66, no 3. p. 343-353.
  • Ohmart RD & Smith EL. (1971). Water Deprivation and Use of Sodium Chloride Solutions by Vesper Sparrows Pooecetes-Gramineus. Condor. vol 73, no 3. p. 364-366.
  • Patterson MP & Best LB. (1996). Bird abundance and nesting success in Iowa CRP fields: The importance of vegetation structure and composition. American Midland Naturalist. vol 135, no 1. p. 153-167.
  • Peer BD, Robinson SK & Herkert JR. (2000). Egg rejection by cowbird hosts in grasslands. Auk. vol 117, no 4. p. 892-901.
  • Perritt JE & Best LB. (1989). Effects of Weather on the Breeding Ecology of Vesper Sparrows in Iowa USA Crop Fields. American Midland Naturalist. vol 121, no 2. p. 355-360.
  • Pulliam HR & Mills GS. (1977). The Use of Space by Wintering Sparrows. Ecology. vol 58, no 6. p. 1393-1399.
  • Pylypec B. (1991). Impacts of Fire on Bird Populations in a Fescue Prairie. Canadian Field Naturalist. vol 105, no 3. p. 346-349.
  • Reed JM. (1985). A Comparison of the Flush and Spot-Map Methods for Estimating the Size of Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes-Gramineus Territories. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 56, no 2. p. 131-137.
  • Reed JM. (1986). Vegetation Structure and Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes-Gramineus. Wilson Bulletin. vol 98, no 1. p. 144-147.
  • Ritchie TL. (1980). 2 Mid Pleistocene Avi Faunas from Coleman Florida USA. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum Biological Sciences. vol 26, no 1. p. 1-36.
  • Ritchison G. (1981). Variation in the Songs of Vesper Sparrows Pooecetes-Gramineus. American Midland Naturalist. vol 106, no 2. p. 392-398.
  • Rodenhouse NL & Best LB. (1983). Breeding Ecology of Vesper Sparrows Pooecetes-Gramineus in Corn and Soybean Fields. American Midland Naturalist. vol 110, no 2. p. 265-275.
  • Rodenhouse NL & Best LB. (1994). Foraging patterns of vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) breeding in cropland. American Midland Naturalist. vol 131, no 1. p. 196-206.
  • Rumble MA. (1987). Avian Use of Scoria Rock Outcrops. Great Basin Naturalist. vol 47, no 4. p. 625-630.
  • Saveraid EH, Debinski DM, Kindscher K & Jakubauskas ME. (2001). A comparison of satellite data and landscape variables in predicting bird species occurrences in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, USA. Landscape Ecology. vol 16, no 1. p. 71-83.
  • Schaid TA, Uresk DW, Tucker WL & Linder RL. (1983). Effects of Surface Mining on the Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes-Gramineus in the Northern Great Plains USA. Journal of Range Management. vol 36, no 4. p. 500-503.
  • Schroeder MH. (1972). Vesper Sparrow Nests Abandoned after Snow. Wilson Bulletin. vol 84, no 1. p. 98-99.
  • Sedgwick JA. (1987). Avian Habitat Relationships in Pinyon-Juniper Woodland. Wilson Bulletin. vol 99, no 3. p. 413-431.
  • Stallman HR & Best LB. (1996). Bird use of an experimental strip intercropping system in northeast Iowa. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 60, no 2. p. 354-362.
  • Stallman HR & Best LB. (1996). Use of an experimental strip intercropping system in northeast Iowa. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 60, no 2. p. 354-362.
  • Swain SD. (1987). Overnight Changes in Circulating Energy Substrate Concentrations in the Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes-Gramineus. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A. vol 86, no 3. p. 439-442.
  • Swanson DA. (1996). Nesting ecology and nesting habitat requirements of Ohio's grassland-nesting birds: A literature review. Ohio Fish & Wildlife Report. vol 0, no 13. p. 3-60.
  • Sykes AK & Hannon SJ. (2001). Fencerows as habitat for birds in an agricultural landscape in central Alberta, Canada. Ecoscience. vol 8, no 4. p. 441-449.
  • Vickery PD, Hunter ML, Jr. & Wells JV. (1992). Is density an indicator of breeding success?. Auk. vol 109, no 4. p. 706-710.
  • Vickery PD, Zuckerberg B, Jones AL, Shriver WG & Weik AP. (2005). Influence of fire and other anthropogenic practices on grassland and shrubland birds in New England. Studies in Avian Biology. vol 30, p. 139-146.
  • Wells JV & Vickery PD. (1994). Extended flight-songs of vesper sparrows. Wilson Bulletin. vol 106, no 4. p. 696-702.
  • Wiens JA & Rotenberry JT. (1985). Response of Breeding Passerine Birds to Rangeland Alteration in a North American Shrubsteppe Locality. Journal of Applied Ecology. vol 22, no 3. p. 655-668.
  • Wilson SD & Belcher JW. (1989). Plant and Bird Communities of Native Prairie and Introduced Eurasian Vegetation in Manitoba Canada. Conservation Biology. vol 3, no 1. p. 39-44.
  • Wray T, II, Strait KA & Whitmore RC. (1982). Reproductive Success of Grassland Sparrows on a Reclaimed Surface Mine in West-Virginia USA. Auk. vol 99, no 1. p. 157-164.
  • Wray T, II & Whitmore RC. (1979). Effects of Vegetation on Nesting Success of Vesper Sparrows Pooecetes-Gramineus. Auk. vol 96, no 4. p. 802-805.
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