Princo: Malsamoj inter versioj
Salti al navigilo
Salti al serĉilo
← Iru al antaŭa ŝanĝo
Iru al sekvanta ŝanĝo →
Kiel registrite je 22:06, 27 apr. 2006
22 348 bitokojn aldonis
antaŭ 16 jaroj
sen resumo de redaktoj
Kiel registrite je 21:28, 9 aŭg. 2005
← Iru al antaŭa ŝanĝo
Kiel registrite je 22:06, 27 apr. 2006
Neniu resumo de redakto
Iru al sekvanta ŝanĝo →
La vorto '''princo''' por viroj, '''[[princino]]''' por virinoj, de la [[latina]] radiko ''[[princeps]]'', kiam uzata por membro de la plej alta [[aristokratio]], signas diversajn tipojn de titoloj.
Jen listo de artikoloj kiu temas pri '''Princo''':
== Historia fono ==
La latina vorto Princeps, kio signifis "primus inter pares", do "unua inter egaluloj", etabliĝis kiel titolo de la pli aŭ malpli neformala gvidanto de la romia senato kelkajn jarcentojn antaŭ kristo. Cezaro Aŭgusto establis la formalan pozicion de monarko surbaze de princeco. Li ankaŭ decidis, ke siaj nepoj somere regu la urbon Romo, kiam plej multaj nobeloj feriis aŭ praktikis religiajn ritojn - por tiu tasko la cezaraj nepor ricevis la titolon Princeps.
<!-- ==Genealogical Princes, by birth or equivalent==
A '''Prince of the Blood''' is a male member of a ruling house (imperial -or [[royal family]] etcetera). In some monarchies, however, this appellation is a title in its own right, of more restricted use; for instance, as in the French ''Prince du Sang'', restricted to paternal royal descendents. Depending on national tradition, the appellation may have restricted scope, often no further than one or two generations after the monarch and/or the line of succession; or it may be allowed to run into very high numbers, as is often the case in oriental dynasties.
Generally, when such a prince takes a (royal, imperial, etc.) throne he stops being styled a mere "Prince" when he becomes the ruling (or at least titular) monarch, [[Monarch|King]], [[Emperor]], [[Grand Duke]] or one of many other ruler-styles, usually of higher rank, except in the case of a ruler styled "Prince" (see below) of a principality (idem: "Princess" becoming a [[Queen regnant|Queen]]).
*The female form is "princess", but this is also generally used for the spouse of any Prince (of the blood, or of a principality), and also the daughter of any monarch, though in some monarchies (by law and/or tradition) the award is explicit, not automatic. Inversely, the husband of a born princess is (or was) in many monarchies not as readily styled prince (although it certainly occasionally happened). To complicate matters, the style ''Royal Highness'', normally accompanying the title "Prince" in a dynasty (if of royal or imperial rank, that is), can be awarded separately (as a compromise or consolation prize, in some sense).
Regardless of birth rank, marriage to a prince(ss) generally means accession to the ruling house (dynasty), but often the princely style is subject to an explicit conferral (by the Monarch or a political authority with in say in the succession, e.g. certain parliaments), which may be delayed, withheld or even reversed.
In these systems, a prince can be:
* The son of a [[monarch]] and in the direct [[Order of succession|line of succession]].
* Other members of the [[royal family]], styled a ''Royal Highness'', and also in the order of succession (although more distant). (In [[constitutional monarchy|constitutional monarchies]] the precise rules for succession are fixed by [[law]], possibly even the constitution, but may involve parliamentary assent; in more absolute monarchies, there is more likely a family council involved, in more tribal societies possibly some representative council)
* The husband of a [[monarch|reigning queen]] is usually titled "prince" or [[prince consort]]. However for wives of Monarchs, the title is usually a female variation on his (the same as used in case a female can mount the throne), such as Queen or Empress; but in cultures which, contrary to Christian traditions, allow the ruler to have several wives (e.g. four in Islam) and/or official concubines, for these women (sometimes collectively referred to as [[harem]]) there are often specific rules determining their hierarchy and a variety of titles, which may distinguish between those whose offspring can be in line for the succeesion or not, or specifically who is mother to the Heir to the throne (possibly reaching another official position when he succeeds)
Although the definition above is the one that is most commonly understood, there are also different systems: depending on [[country]], [[calendar era|epoch]] and [[translation]] other meanings of "Prince" are possible. Over the centuries foreign-language titles such as [[Italian language|Italian]] ''principe'', [[French language|French]] ''prince'', [[German language|German]] ''Fürst'', [[Russian language|Russian]] ''[[kniaz]]'', etc., are often rendered as "prince" in [[English language|English]].
Many princely styles and titles are used in various monarchies, often changing with a new dynasty, even altered during one's rule, especially in conjunction with the style of the ruler.
Indeed, various princely titles are derived from the ruler's, such as (e)[[mirza]](da), [[khanzada]], [[nawabzada]], [[sahibzada]], [[shahzada]], [[sultanzada]] (all using the Persian patronymic suffix ''-zada'', "son, descendant"; or (maha)[[rajkumar]] from (Maha)[[Raja]] and ''[[Kolano]] ma-ngofa'' 'son of the ruler' on Tidore, again patronymic; or even from a unique title, e.g. [[mehtarjao]]. However, often such style is used in a way that may surprise as not apparently logical, such as adopting a style for princes of the blood which is not pegged to the ruler's title, but rather continues an old tradition, asserts genealogical descendency from and/or claim of political succession to a more lofty monarchy, or simply is assumed 'because we can'.
*In some monarchic dynasties, a very specific title is used, some official, such as [[Infante]] in Iberia.
**This can be a style in existence for a 'princely' -at least originally- feudal entity, possibly still nominally linked to one, [[Archduke]] in the Habsburg empire, [[Grand Prince]] (often rendered, less correctly, as [[Grand Duke]]) in tsarist Russia; see also [[Porphyrogenetos]].
**Other titles are unique to one dynasty, even though the ruler's title is not, such as '''''Moulay''''' (French form; also ''Mulay'' in English) in the Sherifian sultanate (now kingdom ruled by a ''Malik'') of [[Morocco]],
**On the other hand, an existing style can be used without retaining any of its intrinsic qualities, e.g. [[Sultan]] for ordinary members of the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] dynasty (ruler mainly styled [[Padishah]])
**Yet a style can be reserved for members of the dynasty meeting specific criteria, e.g. French Emperor [[Napoléon I Bonaparte]] created the style ''Prince français'' ('French prince') for the princes of his house in line for the imperial succession, which excluded notable his adoptive stepson Eugène de Beahaurnais, who meanwhile was [[Prince de Venise]] in chief of Napoleon's other realm, Italy
*Sometimes a specific title is commonly used by various dynasties in a region, e.g. [[Mian]] in various of the Punjabi princely [[Hill States]] (lower Himalayan region in British India)
*Some monarchies also commonly awarded some of their princes of the blood various lofty titles, some of which were reserved for royalty, other also open to the most trusted commoners and/or the highest nobility, as in the Byzantine empire (e.g. [[Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy|Protosebastos]] reserved).
Independently of such traditions, some dynasties more or less frequently awarded [[apanage]]s to princes of the blood, typically carrying a feudal type title (often as such of lower protocollary rank than their birth rank) and some income.
:*''For the often specific terminology concerning a probable future successor, see [[Crown Prince]] and links there.''
Confusingly, there are instances where a title suggests close kinship but actually only expresses a similar position in the line of succession, e.g. ''[[Filius Augusti]]'' 'son of the Augustus' in the Roman Tetrarchy. Furthermore, terms of kinship are sometimes used as a protocollary style, even for biologically unrelated digitaries, not unlike the practice of members of the clergy being adressed as 'father' and addressing laymen as 'my son/daughter', or even several ecclesiastical titles originally meaning father (notably [[Pope]], [[Abbot]], partially [[Patriarch]]) or brother (e.g. [[Fra]]).
==Princes of principalities==
Other princes (or the same, see below) derive their title not from their dynastic position as such (which must often be shared with brothers, etc), but from their claim to a unique title of formal princely rank, one named after a specific principality, not after the suzerain/sovereign state, even if they belong to one.
===Princes as ruling Monarchs===
A prince or princess who is the [[head of state]] in a [[monarchy]] is a [[reigning prince]],
If the prince(ss)'s state carries no other specific, formal (rank) title, their domain, typically smaller than a [[kingdom (politics)|kingdom]], is called a "[[principality]]".
This can be a regular nation, even sovereign, but his protocolary ranking is below a [[grand duke]].
Presently the last sovereign cases, all tiny states in Europe, are:
* the [[principality]] of [[Liechtenstein]] (between Austrian Tirol and Switzerland)
* the principality of [[Monaco]] (enclave in France),
:not counting the [[co-principality]] of [[Andorra]] (between Spain and France).
In the same tradition/vein some [[micronation]] 'monarchs' establish themselves as (usually merely unilaterally declared, surreal) 'princes'.
:''Example'': [[Roy Bates|Prince Roy]] of [[Sealand]]
The term "prince" has also been used to describe, in languages like English for lack of a more specific word for this concept, the head of a [[feudalism|feudal]] (vassal) state of lower -generally peerage- rank ruling in his own right, not in a mere gubernatorial capacity; for example, it has been used as a synonym for [[duke]] at times.
In German, "Prinz" is the son of a ''"[[Fürst]]"'' (capital obligatory in German grammar), the female form is "Prinzessin".
There are equivalents in most languages in the tradition of the [[Holy Roman Empire]], where these abounded, mainly [[Kleinstaaterei]].
===Princes tasting the throne===
Various monarchies provide for different modes in which princes of the dynasty can temporarily of permanently share in the style and/or office of the Monarch, e.g. as [[Regent]] of [[Viceroy]] (though these offices must not be reserved for members of the ruling dynasty, in some traditions they are, possibly even reflected in the style of the office, e.g. ''[[prince-lieutenant]]'' in Lŭemburg, repeatedly filled by the Crown prince before the grand duke's abdication), or in form of [[consortium imperii]]; some have even a practice in which the Monarch can formally abdicate in favor of his Heir, and yet retain a kingly title with executive power, e.g. ''Maha Upayuvaraja'' Sanskrit for 'Great Joint King' in Cambodia, though sometimes also conferred on powerful regents who exercised executive powers.
===Titular royal princedoms===
One type of prince belongs in both the genealogical royalty and the territorial princely styles. A number of nobiliary territories, carrying with them the formal style of prince, are not (or no longer) actual (political, administrative, etc. principalities, but are maintained as essentially honorary titles (though some land, income etc. may be attached to them), and are awarded traditionally (or occasionally) to princes of the blood, as an [[appanage]].
This is done in particular for the heir to the throne (creating a ''de facto'' [[primogeniture]]), who is often awarded a particular principality in each generation, so that it becomes synonymous with the first in line for the throne, even if there is no automatic legal mechanism to do so.
:* UK (originally England) : [[Prince of Wales]]
:* Netherlands : ''Prins van Oranje'' (Prince of Orange, once a real principality around the homonymous city in southern France)
:* Spain : ''Principe de Asturias'' (Prince of Asturias, once a separate kingdom)
Some states have an analogous tradition, where they confer another princely title, such as the British 'royal duchies' (for various royal princes), and formerly the French ''[[Dauphin]]'' (again, through ''de facto'' primogeniture).
Both systems may concur, as in the kingdom [[Belgium]], where "Prince of Liège=Luik" is one of the traditional titles for royal sons (alongside [[Duke of Brabant]], the highest title, being handed down through primogeniture if it is not yet taken; [[Count of Flanders]] is similarly used for the next in the succession order).
===Titular Princedoms below royalty===
In several countries of the [[Continental Europe|European continent]], e.g. in [[France]], prince can be an aristocratic title of someone having a high rank of [[nobility]] in chief of a geographical place, but no actual princedom, and without any necessary link to [[Royal family|Royalty]], which makes comparing it with e.g. the [[United Kingdom|British]] system of "royal" princes difficult.
:''Example'': [[Winnaretta Singer|Princess de Polignac]] (France)
This can even occur in a monarchy within which an identical 'real' feudal title exists, such as Fürst in German; e.g. [[Otto von Bismarck|Prince Bismarck]] in the empire of reunited Germany, under the Hohenzollern dynasty.
*In other cases, such titular princedoms (the same happens with other titular awardings at peerage level) is created in chief of an event, such as a treaty (e.g. minister Manuel Goday was created ''Principe de la Paz'' 'Prince of Peace' by his Spanish king for negocating the 1795 double peace treaty of Basilea, by which the revolutionary French republic made peace with Prussia and with Spain); more often, sovereigns awarded triumphant generals a so-called [[victory title]] (see there for context since Rome and details), confusingly in chief of the ''battleground'' (or a nearby locality) where a victory was won, even if the awarding monarch has no authority in that country outside his realm (especially Napoleon I Bonaparte created many such titles, also dukedoms).
In the [[Russia]]n system, ''knyaz'' (translated as "prince"), is the highest degree of nobility, and sometimes, represents a [[mediatization]] of an older native [[dynasty]] which became subject to the [[Imperial Russia|Russian imperial dynasty]]. [[Rurik]]id branches used the ''knyaz'' title also after they were succeeded by the [[Romanov]]s as the Russian imperial dynasty.
:''Example'': [[Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin|Prince Potemkin]]
==Prince in both meanings in various (western tradition) languages==
<!-- This list is partially based on a page in Heraldica.org by Alexander Krischnig doing the same for various titles in 35 languages- but *it is not entirely reliable nor completely verified yet, and more languages can be added : handle with care, and amend if you know better for certain*. -->
In each case, the title is followed (when available) by the female form and then (not always available, and obviously rarely applicable to a prince of the blood without a principality) the name of the territorial associated with it, each separated by a slash. If a second title (or set) is also given, then that one is for a Prince of the blood, the first for a principality. Be aware that the absence of a separate title for a prince of the blood may not always mean no such title exists; alternatively, the existence of a word does not imply there is also a reality in the linguistic territory concerned; it may very well be used exclusively to render titles in other languages, regardless whether there is a historical link with any (which often means that linguistic tradition is adopted)
Etymologically, we can discern the following traditions (some languages followed a historical link, e.g. within the Holy Roman Empire, not their linguistic family; some even fail to follow the same logic for certain other aristocratic titles):
* Languages (mostly [[Romance languages|Romance]]) only using the [[Latin language|Latin]] root ''princeps'':
**English:Prince /Princess - Prince /Princess
**French: Prince /Princesse - Prince /Princesse
**Albanian:Princ /Princeshë - Princ /Princeshë
**Catalan: Príncep /Princesa - Príncep /Princesa
**Irish: Prionsa /Banphrionsa - Prionsa /Banphrionsa
**Italian: Principe /Principessa - Principe /Principessa
**Maltese: Princep /Principessa - Princep /Principessa
**Monegasque: Principu /Principessa -Principu /Principessa
**Portuguese: Príncipe /Princesa - Príncipe /Princesa
**Rhaeto-Romanic: Prinzi /Prinzessa - Prinzi /Prinzessa
**Romanian: Prinţ /Prinţesă - Principe /Principesă
**Spanish: Príncipe /Princesa - Príncipe /Princesa
* Languages (mainly [[Germanic languages|Germanic]]) that use (generally alongside a princeps-derivate for princes of the blood) an equivalent of the German ''Fürst'':
**Danish: Fyrste /Fyrstinde - Prins /Prinsesse
**Dutch: Vorst /Vorstin- Prins /Prinses
**Estonian [Finnish-Ugrian family]: Vürst /Vürstinna - Prints /Printsess
**German: Fürst /Fürstin - Prinz /Prinzessin
**Icelandic: Fursti /Furstynja - Prins /Prinsessa
**Lŭemburgish[German dialect]:Fürst /Fürstin - Prënz /Prinzessin
**Norwegian: Fyrste /Fyrstinne - Prins /Prinsesse
**Swedish: Furste /Furstinna - Prins /Prinsessa
* [[Slavonic languages|Slavonic]] and (related) [[Baltic languages]]
**Belorussian: Tsarevich, Karalevich, Prynts /Tsarewna, Karalewna, Pryntsesa
**Bulgarian: Knyaz /Knaginya%9Tsarevich, Kralevich, Prints /Printsesa
**Croatian, Serbian: Knez /Kneginja Kraljević/Kraljevna, Princ/Princeza
**Czech: Kníže /Kněžna, Králevic/Králevična, Princ/Princezna
**Latin (post-Roman): Princeps/*Princeps/*
**Latvian: Firsts /Firstiene - Princis /Princese
**Lithuanian: Kunigaikštis /Kunigaikštiene - Princas /Princese
**Macedonian: Knez /Knezhina, Tsarevich, Kralevich, Prints /Tsarevna, Kralevna, Printsesa
**Polish: Książę /Księżna, Książę, Królewicz /Księżna, Królewna
**Russian: Knyaz /Knyagina Knyazhnya, Tsarevich, Korolyevich, Prints /Tsarevna, Korolyevna, Printsessa
**Slovak: Knieža /Kňažná, Kráľovič, Princ /Princezná
**Slovene: Knez /Kneginja, Kraljevič, Princ /Kraljična, Princesa
**Ukrainian: Knyaz /Knyazhnya, Tsarenko, Korolenko, Prints /Tsarivna, Korolivna, Printsizna
* other (incl. Finnish-Ugrian .. ) languages :
**Finnish: Ruhtinas /Ruhtinatar - Prinssi /Prinsessa
**Greek (New): Igemonas /Igemonida - Pringipas /Pringipesa
**Hungarian (Magyar): ''Fejedelem'' (in case of a Reigning Prince) / ''Fejedelemnő'' (in case of a Reigning Princess) / ''Fejedelemasszony'' (in case of the consort of a Reigning Prince)
==Oriental and other native counterparts==
The above is essentially the story of European, Christian dynasties and other nobility, also 'exported' to their colonial and other overseas territories and otherwise adopted by rather westernized societies elsewhere (e.g. Haiti).
Applying these essentially western concepts, and terminology, to other cultures even when they don't do so, is common but in many respects rather dubious. Different (historical, religious ...) backgrounds have also begot significantly different dynastic and nobiliary systems, which are poorly represented by the 'closest' western analogy.
It therefore makes sense to treat these per civilization.
* Arabian tradition since the caliphate - in several monarchies it remains customary to use the title Sheikh (in itself below princely rank) for all members of the royal family. In families (often reiging dynasties) which claim descent from the prophet Mohammed, this is expressed in either of a number of titles (supposing different exact relations): sayid, sharif; these are retained even when to remote from any line of succession to be a member of any dynasty.
* Malay countries
* In the Ottoman empire, the sovereign of imperial rank (incorrectly known in the west as ''(Great) sultan'') was styled [[padishah]] with a host of additional titles, reflecting his claim as political successor to the various conquered states. Princes of the blood, male and female, were given the style [[sultan]] (normally reserved for Muslim rulers)
*& other Near East
===Far East (Confucianist, Hindu, Buddhist, etc.)===
In ancient [[China]], the title of prince developed from being the highest title of [[Chinese nobility|nobility]] (synonymous with [[duke]]) in the [[Zhou Dynasty]], to five grades of princes (not counting the sons and grandsons of the emperor) by the time of the fall of the [[Qing Dynasty]].
In [[Japan]], the title of prince (kôshaku 公爵) was used as the highest title of [[kazoku]](華族Japanese modern nobility) before the present constitution. The title kôshaku, however, is more commonly translated as duke to avoid confusion with the royal ranks in the imperial household, shinnô (親王 (literally king of the blood) female;naishinnô (内親王(literally queen(by herself) of the blood) and shinnôhi親王妃 (literally consort of king of the blood)) or ô (王 (literaly king) female;nyoô (女王(literaly queen (by herself)) and ôhi (王妃(literally consort of king)). The former is the higher title of a male member of the Imperial family and the latter is the lower.
* See [[princely states]] for the (often particular, mainly hindu) title on the Indian subcontinent in (former British) [[India]] (including modern [[Pakistan]] and [[Bangladesh]]) as well as [[Burma]] and [[Nepal]] ...
* Indochina : Cambodja, Vietnam, Laos
* and many other
Except for the Arabized, Muslim North and some other monarchies that simply adopted Islamic practices, or in cases where a Western model was copied (e.g. Bokassa I's short-lived [[Central-African Empire]] in Napoleonic fashion), usually the styles, or even the systems, are completely independent or almost.
==Ecclesiastic and other religious princes==
In states with an element of [[theocracy]], this can affect princehood in several ways, such as the style of the ruler (e.g. with a secondary title meaning son or servant of a named divinity), but also the mode of succession (even reincarnation and recognition).
Furthermore, certain religious offices may be considered of princely rank, and/or imply comparable temporal rights.
See [[Prince of the Church]] for the main Christian versions. -->
==Jen biografioj de iuj konataj '''geprincoj''':==
*[[Carolina Josefa Leopoldina]], arĥidukino de [[Aŭstrio]];
Elŝutita el "
En aliaj lingvoj