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Matthias Grünewald aŭ "Mathis" (kiel antaŭnomo), "Gothart" aŭ "Neithardt" (kiel familia nomo), (naskiĝis ĉ. 1470 – mortis 31-an de aŭgusto 1528), estis germana renesanca pentristo de religiaj verkoj.

Retablo de Isenheim

El la verkaro de Grünewald restis nur dek pentraĵoj - pluraj konsistantaj el multaj paneloj - kaj tridek kvin desegnaĵoj, ĉiuj kun religiaj temoj. Multaj aliaj tamen estis perditaj 1631/32 en la Tridekjara milito sur la Balta Maro, kiam senditaj kiel militorabaĵo al Svedio. La reputacio estis obskurita ĝis la malfrua deknaŭa jarcento, kaj multaj el liaj pentraĵoj estis atribuitaj al Albrecht Dürer, kiu nun estas vidita kiel sia stila antitezo. Lia plej granda kaj plej da fama laboro estas la Retablo de Isenheim en Colmar, Alzaco.

Biografio[redakti | redakti fonton]

Grünewald's John the Evangelist. This work was long thought to be a self portrait.

The details of his life are unusually unclear for a painter of his significance at this date, despite the fact that his commissions show that he had reasonable recognition in his own lifetime. His real name remains uncertain, but was definitely not Grünewald; this was a mistake by the seventeenth-century writer, Joachim von Sandrart, who confused him with another artist. He is documented as "Master Mathis" or "Mathis the Painter" (Mathis der Maler), and as using as surname both Gothart and Neithardt — this last may have been his surname, or more likely that of his wife. He was probably born in Würzburg in the 1470s. It is possible he was a pupil of Hans Holbein the Elder. From about 1500, he seems to have lived at Seligenstadt, when not working elsewhere.

His first dated painting is probably in Munich, dated 1503 on a much later note which apparently records an older inscription. From about 1510 to 1525 he served in the Rhineland as court painter, architect—or at least supervisor of building works—and hydraulic engineer to two successive Prince-Archbishops of Mainz, Uriel von Gemmingen and Albert of Brandenburg (whose face he used for a St Erasmus in Munich). He left this post possibly because of sympathies either with the German Peasants' War, in which Seligenstadt was particularly caught up, or Lutheranism (he had some Lutheran pamphlets and papers at his death). Grünewald died in Halle, probably in 1528, or perhaps 1531.

Works[redakti | redakti fonton]

Sketch for a lost Saint Dorothy (Berlin). The J. Paul Getty Museum purchased a forged painting based on this drawing.

Only religious works are included in his small surviving corpus, the most famous being the Isenheim Altarpiece, completed 1515, now in the Musée d'Unterlinden, Colmar. Its nine images on twelve panels are arranged on double wings to present three views (rather than just the open and closed states of triptych altarpieces), according to the season or occasion. The first view with the outer wings closed shows a Crucifixion flanked by Saint Sebastien and Saint Anthony, with a predella showing the entombment. When the first set of wings is opened, the Annunciation, Angelic Concert (sometimes interpreted as the Birth of Ecclesia) Mary bathing Christ, and Resurrection are displayed. The third view discloses a carved and gilded wood altarpiece by Nicolas Hagenau, flanked by the Temptation of St. Anthony and Anthony's visit to Saint Paul. As well as being by far his greatest surviving work, the altarpiece contains most of his surviving painting by surface area, being 2.65 metres high and over 5 metres wide at its fullest extent.

His other works are in Germany, except for a small Crucifixion in Washington and another in Basel, Switzerland. Around 1510 he was asked to paint four saints in grisaille for the outside of the wings of Albrecht Dürer's Heller Altarpiece (:de) in Frankfurt. Dürer's work was destroyed by fire and only survives in copies, but fortunately the wings have survived, one pair of saints being displayed in Frankfurt's Municipal Art Gallery and the other in Karlsruhe's, Staatliche Kunsthalle. There are also the late Tauberbischofsheim altarpiece in the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, and the Establishment of the Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome (1517–1519), Augustiner Museum, Freiburg. A large panel of Saint Erasmus and Saint Maurice in Munich probably dates from 1521–24, and was apparently part of a larger altarpiece project, the rest of which has not survived. Other works are in Munich, Karlsruhe, Aschaffenberg and Stuppach (:de). Altogether four somber and awe-filled Crucifixions survive. The visionary character of his work, with its expressive colour and line, is in stark contrast to Dürer's works. His paintings are known for their dramatic forms, vivid colors, and depiction of light.

Reputation[redakti | redakti fonton]

19c depiction of Grünewald on the Franconiabrunnen by Ferdinand von Miller (1824) now in front of the Würzburg Residenz.

The Protestant theologian Philipp Melanchthon is one of the few contemporary writers to refer to Grünewald, who is rather puzzlingly described as "moderate" in style, when compared with Dürer and Cranach; what paintings this judgement is based on is uncertain. By the end of the century, when the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II embarked on his quest to secure as many Dürer paintings as possible, the Isenheim Altarpiece was already generally believed to be a Dürer. In the late 19th century he was rediscovered, and became something of a cult figure, with the angst-laden expressionism—and absence of any direct classicism—of the Isenheim Altarpiece appealing to both German Nationalists and Modernists. Joris-Karl Huysmans promoted his art enthusiastically in both novels and journalism, rather as Proust did that of Vermeer. His apparent sympathies with the peasants in the Peasants' War also brought him admiration from the political left.

The composer Paul Hindemith based his 1938 opera Mathis der Maler on the life of Grünewald during the Peasants' War; scene Six includes a partial re-enactment of some scenes from the Isenheim Altarpiece.

Elias Canetti wrote his novel Auto-da-Fé surrounded by reproductions of the Isenheim altarpiece stuck to the wall.

German author W.G. Sebald traces the life story of Grünewald in his first literary work, After Nature. This book-length prose-poem uses the preoccupations of Grünewald and especially his creation of the Isenheim Altarpiece to communicate an intensely apocalyptic vision of a world that has abandoned nature.[1]

Veneration[redakti | redakti fonton]

Grünewald is honored together with Albrecht Dürer and Lucas Cranach the Elder with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) on August 5.

He is commemorated as an artist and saint by the Lutheran Church on April 6, along with Dürer and Cranach.

Gallery[redakti | redakti fonton]

See also[redakti | redakti fonton]

References[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. Curiosity and Catastrophe - New York Times

Sources[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Cuttler, Charles D. (1968) Northern Painting from Pucelle to Bruegel. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. ISBN 0-03-072500-3

External links[redakti | redakti fonton]


Blank-Monto (Mont Blanc)
Blank-Monto de la itala flanko, dekstre Mont Maudit kaj Mont Blanc du Tacul
Blank-Monto de la itala flanko, dekstre Mont Maudit kaj Mont Blanc du Tacul
Alteco Esprima eraro: Nekonata interpunkcia simbolo “[”.
Situo Francio kaj Italio
Montaro Savojaj Alpoj
Koordinatoj 45°40′N 6°50′O  /  45.667°N, 6.833°O / 45.667; 6.833 (UNiesert/sablo) (mapo)Koordinatoj: 45°40′N 6°50′O  /  45.667°N, 6.833°O / 45.667; 6.833 (UNiesert/sablo) (mapo)
Information icon.svg

La Blanka Monto,Blank-Monto, estas la plej alta pinto de la montaro Alpoj, en la masivo de Blanka Monto inter Haute-Savoie (Francio) kaj valo de Aosta (Italio). Kulminanta je ĉirkaŭ 4 810 metroj de alteco, estas la plej alta monto de okcidenta Eŭropo kaj la 5-a plejaltaĵo de Eŭropo, post 4 kaŭkazaj pintoj.

Ĝia masivo inkludas multajn glaĉerojn tiel, kiel la "mer de Glace" (maro de glacio) kaj la glaĉero de "Bossons" ĉe la norda flanko.

Pola poeto Juliusz Słowacki nomas ĝin la kolumno de kosmo en sia dramo Kordian kie la heroo-superhomo staras sur la pinto de Blanka Monto kaj parolas al Dio.

Alteco varias[redakti | redakti fonton]

La alteco de Blanka Monto estis oficiale registrita kiel 4808 msm. Remezurita per precizegaj metodoj de GPS en 2001 ĝia alteco estis 4810,40 m. En 2005 eĉ 4810,90 m. La mezurado en 2007 rezultis 45 cm malpli. [1]

Krome geodeziistoj mezuris la glacian ĉapon de Blankmonto kaj malkovris, ke la glaciamaso en alteco de pli ol 4800 m malgrandiĝis de 24.062 m³ (2007) al 21.626 m³ (2009). [1] Jam en 2004 boresploroj montris, ke Blankmonto ĉe la pinto estas kovrata de 28-metra glacitavolo, do la roko en tiu punkto altas 4780 m (dum la „vera“ rokeca pinto de Blankmonto situas 40 metrojn pli okcidente, havas 4792 m kaj glacikovraĵon de 14 m). [2]

Vidu ankaŭ[redakti | redakti fonton]

Notoj, referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. 1,0 1,1 La alteco de Blankmonto ŝanĝiĝas, Radio France International, 6 nov 2009 (france)
  2. Kiom altas Blankmonto en neĝo, Universitato Grenoble (Laboratoire de glaciologie et de géophysique de Grenoble), 2 aug 2004 (pdf, france)

Ŝablono:LigoLeginda Ŝablono:LigoElstara

Kate gorio:Montoj en Francio Kate gorio:Montoj en Italio Kate gorio:Montoj de la Alpoj Kate gorio:Plej altaj punktoj Kate gorio:Montoj kun alteco inter 4000 kaj 4999 m

modelaj urbokvartaloj: Tübingen: Französisches Viertel Freiburg: Vauban, Rieselfeld Trier: Petrisberg Hamburg: Hafencity

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Notoj, referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Enhavo de la filmo / Temo / Enhavo / Intrigo / Konciza enhava resumo / Scenaro

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Vidu ankaŭ[redakti | redakti fonton]

Notoj, referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Kate gorio:Luno

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