Vikipedio:Stilogvido/Traduko de Manual of Style

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Manlibro de stilo[redakti fonton]


Ĉi tiu Manlibro de stilo havas la simplan celon plialtigi la legeblecon de artikoloj per sekvado de konsekvenca formato — ĝi estas stilgvido. La sekvaj reguloj ne pretendas esti la lasta vorto. Unu vojo estas ofte sambona kiel alia, sed se ĉiuj faros same, Vikipedio estos pli facile legebla kaj uzebla, eĉ ne menciante pli altan facilecon de verkado kaj redaktado. Ĉi-rilate, la sekva citaĵo de La ĉikaga manlibro de stilo meritas rimarkon:

Reguloj kaj preskriboj kiel ĉi tiuj, kiel estadas en tiaj ĉi kazoj, ne povas esti dotitaj per la fikseco de enŝtonigita leĝo. Ili celas la averaĝan kazon kaj devas esti aplikataj kun certa grado de elasteco.

Klara, informriĉa kaj malpartieca verkado estas ĉiam pli grava ol prezentmaniero kaj aspektigado. Verkistoj ne estas devigataj sekvi ĉiujn nek ajnan de ĉi tiuj reguloj: La ĝojo de viki-redaktado baziĝas sur tio, ke perfekteco ne estas postulata.

Titoloj de artikoloj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Vikipedio:Nomoj de titoloj.

Se eble, igu la titolon la subjekto de la unua frazo de la artikolo (male al ĝia meto en la predikaton). Ekzemple, skribu “Tiu ĉi Manlibro de stilo estas gvidlibro pri stilo” anstataŭ “Tiu ĉi gvidlibro pri stilo estas konata kiel la Manlibro de stilo.” Ĉiaokaze, la titolo devus aperi tiom frue kiom eble en la artikolo — preferinde jam en la unua frazo.

Kiam la titolo estas menciata unuafoje en la artikolo, uzu por ĝi grasan tipon helpe de tri apostrofoj — ' ' ' titolo de la artikolo ' ' ' liveras titolo de la artikolo. Ekzemple: “Tiu ĉi Manlibro de stilo estas gvidlibro pri stilo.”

Ĝenerale, ne metu ligilojn en (1) la grastipajn ripetojn de la titolo en la enkondukanta frazo aŭ (2) kiun ajn titolon de rubriko aŭ sekcio. Evitu ankaŭ grastipigi aliajn frazpartojn ene de la unua frazo. Escepto povus esti permesata se ligilo al la dua grastipa frazo religas al ĉi tiu artikolo kaj se la dua grastipa frazo ne estas ortografia, gramatika aŭ mallongigita varianto de la nomo de la artikolo. (Ekzemple: Samuel Langhorne Clemens (30-a de novembro de 1835 – 21-a de aprilo de 1910), pli bone konata laŭ sia pseŭdonimo Mark Twain. . . )

Oni sekvu la “normalajn” regulojn por kursiva tipo elektante ĉu meti parton aŭ la tuton de la titolo en kursivan tipon.

Titoloj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings).


Use the == (heading) markup for headings, not the ''' (bold) markup. Example:

===This is a heading===

which produces:

This is a heading

If you mark headings this way, a table of contents is automatically generated from the headings in an article. Sections can be automatically numbered for users with that preference set and words within properly marked headings are given greater weight in searches. Headings also help readers by breaking up the text and outlining the article.

  • Capitalize the first letter only of the first word and of any proper nouns in a heading, and leave all of the other letters in lower case.
  • Avoid links within headings.
  • Avoid overuse of sub-headings.

Majusklaj literoj[redakti fonton]

Titoloj[redakti fonton]

Titles such as president, king, or emperor start with a capital letter when used as a title (followed by a name): "President Nixon", not "president Nixon". When used generically, they should be in lower case: "De Gaulle was the French president." The correct formal name of an office is treated as a proper noun. Hence: "Hirohito was Emperor of Japan". Similarly "Louis XVI was the French king" but "Louis XVI was King of France", King of France being a title in that context. Likewise, royal titles should be capitalized: "Her Majesty" or "His Highness". (Reference: Chicago Manual of Style 14th ed., par. 7.16; The Guardian Manual of Style, "Titles" keyword.) Exceptions may apply for specific offices.

In the case of "prime minister", either both words begin with a capital letter or neither, except, obviously, when it starts a sentence. Again, when being used generically, no capital letter is used: "There are many prime ministers around the world." When reference is made to a specific office, upper case is generally used: "The British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, said today..." (However to complicate matters, some style manuals, while saying "The British Prime Minister", recommend "British prime minister". A good rule of thumb is whether a definite article (the) or an indefinite article (a) is used. If the is used, use "Prime Minister". If a is used, go with "prime minister".)

American English and Commonwealth English differ in their inclination to use capitals. Commonwealth English uses capitals more widely than American English does. This may apply to titles for people. If possible, as with spelling, use rules appropriate to the cultural and linguistic context. In other words, do not enforce American rules on pages about Commonwealth topics or Commonwealth rules on pages about American topics. In regard to pages about other cultures, choose either style, but be consistent within the page itself.

Religioj, gedioj, filozofioj, ismoj kaj iliaj anoj[redakti fonton]

Names of religions, whether used as a noun or an adjective, and their followers start with a capital letter. Mormonism requires special care — see Wikipedia:Naming conventions (Mormonism).

Deities begin with a capital letter: God, Allah, Freya, the Lord, the Supreme Being, the Messiah. The same is true when referring to Muhammad as the Prophet. Transcendent ideas in the Platonic sense also begin with a capital letter: Good and Truth. Pronouns referring to deities, or nouns (other than names) referring to any material or abstract representation of any deity, human or otherwise, do not begin with a capital letter.

Mythical creatures, such as elves, fairies, nymphs or genies should not be capitalized. The exception is some works of fantasy, such as those of J.R.R. Tolkien, where the mythical creatures are considered an ethnicity and thus written with an initial capital.

Philosophies, doctrines, and systems of economic thought do not begin with a capital letter, unless the name is derived from a proper noun: lowercase republican refers to a system of political thought; uppercase Republican refers to a specific Republican Party (each party name being a proper noun).

Kalendareroj[redakti fonton]

The names of months, days, and holidays always begin with a capital letter: June, Monday, Fourth of July.

Seasons start with a capital letter when they are used with another noun or are personified. Here they function as proper nouns: "Winter Solstice"; "Autumn Open House"; "I think Spring is showing her colors"; "Old Man Winter".

However, they do not start with a capital letter when they are used generally: "This summer was very hot."

Bestoj, plantoj kaj aliaj organismoj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:WikiProject Tree of Life#Article titles and common names.
Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Naming conventions (fauna).

Whether the common names of species should start with a capital letter has been hotly debated in the past and has remained unresolved. As a matter of truce both styles are acceptable (except for proper names), but a redirect should be created from the alternative form.

Astroj[redakti fonton]

Names of other planets and stars are proper nouns and begin with a capital letter: "The planet Mars can be seen tonight in the constellation Gemini, near the star Pollŭ".

The words sun, earth, and moon are proper nouns when used in an astronomical context, but not elsewhere: so "The Sun is a main sequence star, with a spectral class of G2"; but "It was a lovely day and the sun was warm". Note that these terms are only proper nouns when referring to a specific spectral body (our Sun, Earth and Moon): so "The Moon orbits the Earth"; but "Pluto's moon Charon".

Direktoj kaj regionoj[redakti fonton]

Regions that are proper nouns, including widely known expressions such as Southern California, start with a capital letter. Follow the same convention for related forms: a person from the Southern United States is a Southerner.

Directions (north, southwest, etc.) are not proper nouns and do not start with a capital letter. The same is true for their related forms: a road that leads north might be called a northern road, compared to the Great North Road.

If you are not sure whether a region has attained proper-noun status, assume it has not.

Institucioj[redakti fonton]

Proper names of specific institutions (for example, Harvard University, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, George Brown College, etc.) are proper nouns and should be capitalized.

However, the words for types of institutions (university, college, hospital, high school, etc.) are not capitalized if they are not appearing in a proper name:

Incorrect: The University offers programs in arts and sciences.
Correct: The university offers... or The University of Ottawa offers...

Kursivo[redakti fonton]

Use the '' (italic) markup. Example:

''This is italic.''

which produces:

This is italic.

Italics are mainly used to emphasize certain words. They are also used in other cases that are mentioned here.

Titoloj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Manual of Style (titles).

Italics should be used for titles of the following:

  • Living organisms, when named using binomial nomenclature. For example: Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli
  • Books
  • Computer and video games
  • Court cases
  • Films
  • Foreign language words
  • Genes (however, the proteins encoded by the genes are set in roman)
  • Long poems/epic poems
  • Musical albums
  • Named passenger trains
  • Orchestral works
  • Periodicals (newspapers, journals, and magazines)
  • Plays
  • Ships
  • Television series
  • Works of visual art

Italics are generally used for titles of longer works. Titles of shorter works, such as the following, should be enclosed in double quotation marks:

  • Articles, essays or papers
  • Chapters of a longer work
  • Episodes of a television series
  • Short poems
  • Short stories
  • Songs

There are a few cases in which the title should be in neither italics nor quotation marks:

  • Scripture
  • Legal or constitutional documents

Vortoj kiel vortoj[redakti fonton]

Use italics when writing about words as words, or letters as letters (to indicate the use-mention distinction). For example:

  • Deuce means two.
  • The term panning is derived from panorama, a word originally coined in 1787.
  • The most common letter in English is e.

Pruntitaj vortoj[redakti fonton]

Italics are preferred for phrases in other languages and for isolated foreign words that have not yet been incorporated into the English language. Anglicized spellings can be used for such words, or the native spellings can be used if they use the Latin alphabet (with or without diacritics). For example: Reading and writing in Japanese requires familiarity with hiragana, katakana, kanji, and sometimes rōmaji. Foreign words or phrases that have passed into the English language, however—praetor, Gestapo, samurai, esprit de corps—should not be italicized. If looking for a good rule of thumb, do not italicize words that appear in an English language dictionary. As per the guide to writing better Wikipedia articles, foreign words should be used sparingly, and native spellings in non-Latin scripts may be included in parentheses.

Citaĵoj[redakti fonton]

There is normally no need to put quotations in italics unless the material would otherwise call for italics (emphasis, use of non-English words, etc.). It is necessary to indicate whether the italics are used in the original text or were added later. For example:

Now cracks a noble heart. Good night sweet prince: And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest!

(emphasis added). See also quotation marks.

Note that italicizing text can make it harder for people with visual or cognitive disabilities to read [1]

Interpunkcio[redakti fonton]

In most cases, simply follow the usual rules of English punctuation. A few points where Wikipedia may differ from usual usage follow.

Citiloj[redakti fonton]

With quotation marks, we split the difference between American and British usage. Though not a rigid rule, we use the "double quotes" for most quotations—they are easier to read on the screen—and use 'single quotes' for nesting quotations, that is, "quotations 'within' quotations".

Note: if a word or phrase appears in an article with single quotes, such as 'abcd', the Wikipedia:Searching facility considers the single quotes to be part of the word and will find that word or phrase only if the search string is also within single quotes. (When trying this out with the example mentioned, remember that this article is in the Wikipedia namespace.) Avoiding this complication is an additional reason to use double quotes, for which the difficulty does not arise. It may even be a reason to use double quotes for quotations within quotations.

When punctuating quoted passages include the mark of punctuation inside the quotation marks only if the sense of the mark of punctuation is part of the quotation. This is the style used in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain, for example. (A fuller treatment of the recommendations given here can be found in Fowler's Modern English Usage and other style guides for these countries, some of which vary in fine details.) "Stop!", for example, has the punctuation inside the quotation marks because the word "stop" is said with emphasis. When using "scare quotes", however, the comma goes outside.

Other examples:

Arthur said the situation was "deplorable". (The full stop (period) is not part of the quotation.)
Arthur said, "The situation is deplorable." (The full sentence is quoted; the period is part of the quotation.)
Arthur said that the situation "was the most deplorable he had seen in years." (Although the full sentence is not quoted, the sense of finality conveyed by the period is part of the quotation.)

Longer quotations may be better rendered in an indented style by starting the first line with a colon or by using <blockquote> </blockquote> notation, which indents both left and right margins. Indented quotations do not need to be marked by quotation marks. Double quotation marks belong at the beginning of each paragraph in a quotation of multiple paragraphs not using indented style, though at the end of only the last paragraph.

Use quotation marks or indentations to distinguish quotations from other text. There is normally no need to put quotations in italics unless the material would otherwise call for italics (emphasis, use of non-English words, etc.).

Aspekto de citiloj kaj apostrofoj[redakti fonton]

Ŝablono:Dubious

There is currently no consensus whether typographic (“ ” ‘ ’) or typewriter (" ') quotation marks and apostrophe should be preferred.

If curved quotation marks or apostrophes should appear in article titles ensure that there is a redirect with straight glyphs.

Never use acute and grave accents or backticks (´ `) as quotation marks.

Ŝablono:Seealso

Uzo de interpunkcio ene de krampoj[redakti fonton]

Punctuation goes where it belongs logically; that is, it goes with the text to which it belongs. A sentence wholly inside brackets will have its punctuation inside the brackets. (As shown here, this applies to all punctuation in the sentence.) If a sentence ends with a clause in brackets, the final punctuation stays outside the brackets (as shown here). This applies to square "[ ]" as well as round "( )" brackets (parentheses).

Seriaj komoj[redakti fonton]

The Oxford comma, or the serial comma, is the optional last comma in a list in the phrases such as "ham, egg(,) and chips". Sometimes omitting the comma can lead to an ambiguous sentence, as in the example "The author would like to thank her parents, Sinéad O'Connor and President Bush." In these cases, there are three options for avoiding ambiguity:

  • A final serial comma can be used to avoid ambiguity.
  • The sentence can be recast to avoid listing the items if possible.
  • The items in the list can be presented using a formatted list (like this).

In most cases, however, the presence of the final serial comma does not affect ambiguity of the sentence, and in these cases there is no Wikipedia consensus on whether it should be used.

Some style authorities support the mandatory final serial comma, such as Fowler's Modern English Usage, the Chicago Manual of Style, and Strunk and White's The Elements of Style, while other style authorities recommend avoiding the comma where possible, such as that used by The Times and The Economist.

By common convention, and by consensus of the Trains wikiproject, the serial comma should never be employed when specifying the name of a railroad or railway. For example, "Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad", not "Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad".

Strekoj[redakti fonton]

See the supplementary style guide, Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dashes).

Spacoj post fino de frazo[redakti fonton]

There are no guidelines on whether to use one or two spaces after the end of a sentence but it is not important as the difference shows up only in the edit box. See Wikipedia talk:Manual of Style archive (spaces after the end of a sentence) for a discussion on this.

Mallongigoj per apostrofo[redakti fonton]

In general, formal writing is preferred. Therefore, avoid excessive use of contractions — such as don't, can't, won't, would've, they'd, and so on — unless they occur in a quotation.

Akronimoj kaj mallongigoj[redakti fonton]

Do not assume that your reader is familiar with the acronym or abbreviation that you are using. The standard writing style is to spell out the acronym or abbreviation on the first reference (wikilinked if appropriate) and then show the acronym or abbreviation after it. This signals to readers to look out for it later in the text, and makes it easy for them to refer back to it, for example:

The New Democratic Party (NDP) won the 1990 Ontario election with a significant majority. The NDP quickly became unpopular with the voters, however.....

It can also be helpful in a longer article to spell out the acronym or abbreviation for the reader again or to rewikify it if it has not been used for a while.

Prononco[redakti fonton]

See Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation).

Scienca stilo[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Technical terms and definitions.

Sekcioj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Section.

Enkonduko[redakti fonton]

The title or subject can almost always be made part of the first sentence, but some articles simply have names.

  • The Pythagorean theorem is named after and attributed to the 6th century BC Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras
The '''Pythagorean theorem''' is named after and attributed to the [[6th century BC]] Greek philosopher and mathematician [[Pythagoras]]
  • Tom and Jerry — Pairing of names from Pierce Egan's Life in London
'''Tom and Jerry'''&nbsp;&mdash; Pairing of names from [[Pierce Egan]]'s ''Life in London''

If the subject of the article has more than one name, each new form of the name should be in bold on its first appearance.

  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye...
'''Sodium hydroxide''' ([[sodium|Na]][[oxygen|O]][[hydrogen|H]]), also known as '''caustic soda''' or '''lye'''...

Make the context clear in the first few words.

In [[quantum physics]], the '''Heisenberg uncertainty principle'''...

Avoid links in the title and circular definitions. However, most words in titles should be linked to.

  • Buddhist meditation, meditation used in the practice of Buddhism, "includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim." (Kamalashila 1996)
'''Buddhist meditation''', [[meditation]] used in the practice of [[Buddhism]], "includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim." (Kamalashila 1996)

Komenca sekcio[redakti fonton]

Ŝablono:Seealso

The lead section is the section before the first headline. It is shown above the table of contents (for pages with more than three headlines). The appropriate lead length depends on the length of the article, but should be no longer than three paragraphs in any case.

Sekcio "Vidu ankaŭ"[redakti fonton]

Mostly, topics related to an article should be included within the text of the article as free links. The "See also" section provides an additional list of internal links as a navigational aid.

If the article is divided into sections and See also refers to a particular section only, references to related articles that have not been linked from free links in the text may be placed at the top of the section:

''See also:'' [[troll]], [[flame]]

which produces:

See also: troll, flame

The above form may also be used in short articles without sections.

When the See also refers to the entire article, not just a section, it should be a heading of level 2 so that it appears in the table of contents. Place it at the bottom of the article, before External links. For example:

==See also==
*[[Troll]]
*[[Flame]]

which produces:

See also

If you remove a redundant link from the See also section of an article, it may be an explicit cross reference (see below), so consider making the link in the main text bold instead.

Sometimes it is useful to have an explicit cross-reference in the text, for example, when a long section of text has been moved somewhere else, or there is a major article on a subtopic. In these cases, make the link bold. For example:

The legal status of circumcision varies from country to country.

Sekcio kun "ĉefa artikolo"[redakti fonton]

When a section is a summary of another article, it should have a link before the text (but after the section heading), as follows:

{{main|Legal status of circumcision}}

which produces:

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Legal status of circumcision.
See also: Guide to writing better articles (layout section)

Aliaj sekcioj[redakti fonton]

Other common sections (in the preferred order) are:

See also:

All succession boxes should go at the very end of the article, following "External links" but preceding the categories and interwiki links.

Simpla tabelado[redakti fonton]

Any line that starts with a blank space becomes a fixed font width and can be used for simple tabulation.

foo     bar     baz
alpha   beta  gamma

A line that starts with a blank space with nothing else on it forms a blank line.

Uzo kaj literumo[redakti fonton]

Uzo[redakti fonton]

  • Possessives of singular nouns ending in s may be formed with or without an additional s. Either form is generally acceptable within Wikipedia. However, if either form is much more common for a particular word or phrase, follow that form, such as with Achilles' heel.
  • If a word or phrase is generally regarded as correct, then prefer it to any other word or phrase that might be regarded as incorrect. For example, "other meaning" should be used instead of "alternate meaning" or "alternative meaning", because not all English speakers regard "alternate" and "alternative" as meaning the same. The American Heritage Dictionary "Usage Note" at alternative says: "Alternative should not be confused with alternate." Alternative commonly suggests "non-traditional" or "out-of-the-mainstream" to an American-English speaker. Some traditional usage experts consider alternative to be appropriate only when there are exactly two alternatives.

Evitu memreferencajn pronomojn[redakti fonton]

Wikipedia articles cannot be based on one person's opinions or experiences. Thus, "I" can never be used, except, of course, when it appears in a quotation. For similar reasons, avoid the use of "we" and "one", as in: "We/One should note that some critics have argued in favor of the proposal", as it sounds more personal than encyclopedic.

Nevertheless, it might sometimes be appropriate to use "we" or "one" when referring to an experience that anyone, any reader, would be expected to have, such as general perceptual experiences. For example, although it might be best to write, "When most people open their eyes, they see something", it is still legitimate to write, "When we open our eyes, we see something", and it is certaintly better than using the passive voice: "When the eyes are opened, something is seen".

It is also acceptable to use "we" in mathematical derivations; for example: "To normalise the wavefunction we need to find the value of the arbitary constant A..."

Evitu duan personon[redakti fonton]

Use of the second person ("you") is generally discouraged. This is to keep an encyclopedic tone, and also to help clarify the sentence. Instead, refer to the subject of the sentence, for example:

  • "When a player moves past "GO," that player collects $200."
  • Not: "When you move past "GO," you collect $200."

This does not apply to quoted text, which should be quoted exactly.

Naciaj varioj de la angla[redakti fonton]

Cultural clashes over grammar, spelling, and capitalisation/capitalization are a common experience on Wikipedia. Remember that millions of people may have been taught to use a different form of English from yours, including different spellings, grammatical constructions, and punctuation. For the English Wikipedia, while a nationally predominant form should be used, there is no preference among the major national varieties of English. However, there is certain etiquette generally accepted on Wikipedia:

  • Proper names should retain their original spellings, for example, United States Department of Defense and Australian Defence Force.
  • Each article should have uniform spelling and not a haphazard mix of different spellings, which can be jarring to the reader. For example, do not use center in one place and centre in another in the same article (except in quotations or for comparison purposes).
  • Articles that focus on a topic specific to a particular English-speaking country should generally conform to the spelling of that country. For example:
    • Article on the American Civil War: American English usage and spelling
    • Article on Tolkien's Lord of the Rings: British English usage and spelling
    • Article on Uluru (Ayers Rock): Australian English usage and spelling
    • Article on European Union institutions and documents: British, Irish and Maltese English usage and spelling
    • Article on the city of Montréal: Canadian English usage and spelling
    • Article on Taj Mahal: Indian English usage and spelling.
  • If at all possible, avoid changing spelling of section titles, as other articles may link to a specific section.
  • When abbreviating United States, please use "U.S."; that is the more common style in that country, is easier to search for automatically, and we want one uniform style on this. When referring to the United States in a long abbreviation (USA, USN, USAF), periods should not be used.
  • When including the United States in a list of countries, do not abbreviate the United States. (for example "France and the United States", not "France and the U.S.").
  • If the spelling appears in an article name, you should make a redirect page to accommodate the other variant, as with Artefact and Artifact, or if possible and reasonable, a neutral word might be chosen as with Glasses.
  • Words with multiple spellings: In choosing words or expressions, there may be value in selecting one that does not have multiple spellings, if there are synonyms that are otherwise equally suitable.
  • If an article is predominantly written in one type of English, aim to conform to that type rather than provoking conflict by changing to another. (Sometimes, this can happen quite innocently, so please don't be too quick to make accusations!)
  • Consult Wikipedia articles such as English plural and American and British English differences.
  • If all else fails, consider following the spelling style preferred by the first major contributor (that is, not a stub) to the article.

See also Wikipedia:Manual of Style (spelling).

Bildoj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Picture tutorial.

Articles with a single picture are encouraged to have that picture at the top of the article, right-aligned, but this is not a hard and fast rule. Portraits with the head looking to the right should be left-aligned (looking into the article).

The current image markup language is more or less this:

[[Image:picture.jpg|120px|right|thumb|Blah blah caption]]

Bildpriskriboj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Captions.

Photos and other graphics should have captions unless they are "self-captioning" as in reproductions of album or book covers, or when the graphic is an unambiguous depiction of the subject of the article. For example, in a biography article, a caption is not needed for a portrait of the subject, pictured alone.

Identeco[redakti fonton]

This is perhaps one area where Wikipedians' flexibility and plurality are an asset, and where one would not wish all pages to look exactly alike. Wikipedia's neutral point of view and no original research policies always take precedence. However, here are some non-binding guidelines that may help:

  • Where known, use terminology that subjects use for themselves (self identification). This can mean calling an individual the term they use, or calling a group the term most widely used by that group.
  • Use specific terminology: People from Ethiopia (a country in Africa) should be described as Ethiopian, not African.
  • However, a more general name will often prove to be more neutral or more accurate. For example, a List of African-American composers is acceptable, though a List of composers of African descent may be more useful.
  • If possible, terms used to describe people should be given in such a way that they qualify other nouns. Thus, black people, not blacks; gay people, not gays; and so forth.
  • Do not assume that any one term is the most inclusive or accurate.
  • The term Arab refers to people and things of ethnic Arab origin. The term Arabic refers to the Arabic language or writing system (and related concepts). For example: Not all Arab people write or converse in Arabic, but nearly all are familiar with Arabic numerals.

Viki-ligiloj[redakti fonton]

Loupe.svg Pli detalaj informoj troveblas en artikolo Wikipedia:Make only links relevant to the context.

Make only links relevant to the context. It is not useful and can be very distracting to mark all possible words as hyperlinks. Links should add to the user's experience; they should not detract from it by making the article harder to read. A high density of links can draw attention away from the high-value links that you would like your readers to follow up. Redundant links clutter up the page and make future maintenance harder. A link is the equivalent of a footnote in a print medium. Imagine if every second word in an encyclopedia article were followed by '(see:)'. Hence, the links should not be so numerous as to make the article harder to read.

Diversaj rimarkoj[redakti fonton]

Kiam ĉio alia malsukcesis[redakti fonton]

If this page does not specify which usage is preferred, use other resources, such as The Chicago Manual of Style (from the University of Chicago Press) or Fowler's Modern English Usage (3rd edition) (from the Oxford University Press). Also, please feel free to carry on a discussion on Wikipedia talk:Manual of Style, especially for substantive changes.

Even simpler is to look at an article that you like and open it for editing to see how the writers and editors have put it together. You can then close the window without saving changes if you like, but look around while you are there. Almost every article can be improved.

Konservu markadon simpla[redakti fonton]

Use the simplest markup to display information in a useful and comprehensible way. Markup may appear differently in different browsers. Use HTML and CSS markup sparingly and only with good reason. Minimizing markup in entries allows easier editing.

In particular, do not use the CSS float or line-height properties because they break rendering on some browsers when large fonts are used.

Formataj aferoj[redakti fonton]

Formatting issues such as font size, blank space and color are issues for the Wikipedia site-wide style sheet and should not be dealt with in articles except in special cases. If you absolutely must specify a font size, use a relative size i.e. font-size: 80%; not an absolute size, for example, font-size: 4pt. Color coding of information should not be done, but if necessary, try to choose colors that are unambiguous when viewed by a person with color blindness. In general, this means that red and green should not both be used. Viewing the page with Vischeck (http://www.vischeck.com/vischeck/vischeckURL.php) can help with deciding if the colors should be altered.

Faru komentojn nevideblaj[redakti fonton]

Avoid highlighting that the article is incomplete and in need of further work.

Similarly, there is little benefit to the reader in seeing headings and tables without content.

If you want to communicate with other potential editors, make comments invisible to the ordinary article reader. To do so, enclose the text which you intend to be read only by editors within <!-- and -->.

For example, the following:

hello <!-- This is a comment. --> world

is displayed as:

hello world

So the comment can be seen when viewing the HTML or wiki source.

Legebleco[redakti fonton]

Consider the legibility of what you are writing. Make your entry easy to read on a screen. Make judicious use of devices such as bulleted lists and bolding. More on this has been written by Jakob Nielsen in How Users Read on the Web.

Vidu ankaŭ[redakti fonton]