Ĝatoj

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Maharaĝo Bupinder Sing Sidhuo de Patiala.

Ĝatoj estas tradicia agrikultura komunumo en Norda Barato kaj Pakistano. Origine paŝtistoj en la malsupro de la valo de la rivero Induso en Sindo,[1][2] Ĝatoj migris norden en Panĝabio, Delhio, Rajputana, kaj la okcidento de la Indus-Ganga Ebenaĵo fine de la mezepoko.[2][3] Ili estas de religioj Hinduismo, Islamo kaj Siĥismo, ili nun loĝas ĉefe en la barataj ŝtatoj Harjano, Panĝabo, Delhio, Raĝastano kaj Utar Pradeŝo kaj la provincoj de Pakistano Panĝabo kaj Sindo.

Notoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. Khazanov, Anatoly M.; Wink, Andre (2012), Nomads in the Sedentary World, Routledge, p. 177, ISBN 978-1-136-12194-4, https://books.google.com/books?id=-v_RORENFbMC&pg=PT177, retrieved 15a de aŭgusto 2013  Citaĵo: "Hiuen Tsang gave the following account of a numerous pastoral-nomadic population in seventh-century Sin-ti (Sind): 'By the side of the river..[of Sind], along the flat marshy lowlands for some thousand li, there are several hundreds of thousands [a very great many] families ..[which] give themselves exclusively to tending cattle and from this derive their livelihood. They have no masters, and whether men or women, have neither rich nor poor.' While they were left unnamed by the Chinese pilgrim, these same people of lower Sind were called Jats' or 'Jats of the wastes' by the Arab geographers. The Jats, as 'dromedary men.' were one of the chief pastoral-nomadic divisions at that time, with numerous subdivisions, ....
  2. 2,0 2,1 Wink, André (2004), Indo-Islamic society: 14th – 15th centuries, BRILL, pp. 92–93, ISBN 978-90-04-13561-1, https://books.google.com/books?id=nyYslywJUE8C&pg=PA92, retrieved 15a de aŭgusto 2013  Citaĵo: "In Sind, the breeding and grazing of sheep and buffaloes was the regular occupations of pastoral nomads in the lower country of the south, while the breeding of goats and camels was the dominant activity in the regions immediately to the east of the Kirthar range and between Multan and Mansura. The jats were one of the chief pastoral-nomadic divisions here in early-medieval times, and although some of these migrated as far as Iraq, they generally did not move over very long distances on a regular basis. Many jats migrated to the north, into the Panjab, and here, between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries, the once largely pastoral-nomadic Jat population was transformed into sedentary peasants. Some Jats continued to live in the thinly populated barr country between the five rivers of the Panjab, adopting a kind of transhumance, based on the herding of goats and camels. It seems that what happened to the jats is paradigmatic of most other pastoral and pastoral-nomadic populations in India in the sense that they became ever more closed in by an expanding sedentary-agricultural realm."
  3. The Sikhs of the Punjab p. 5 de J.S. Grewal. Citaĵo: "However, the most numerous of the agricultural tribes were the Jats. They had come from Sindh and Rajasthan along the river valleys, moving up, displacing the Gujjars and Rajputs to occupy culturable lands. Before the end of the sixteenth century they were more numerous than any other agricultural tribe between the rivers Jhelum and Jamuna."