Memkontrolo

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Memkontrolo, kiel aspekto de inhiba kontrolo, estas la kapablo reguligi la proprajn emociojn, pensojn kaj kutimojn antaŭ la tentoj kaj impulsojn.[1][2] Kiel plenuma funkcio, memkontrolo estas kogna procezo kiu estas necesa por reguligi la propran kutimaron kaj atingi specifajn celojn.[2][3]

Rilata koncepto en psikologio estas emocia mem-reguligo.[4] Oni konsideras memkontrolon kiel muskolo. Laŭ studoj, memreguligo, ĉu emocia aŭ kutimara, estis pruvita kiel limigita rimedo kiu funkcias kiel energio.[5] Je mallonga tempolimo, la troa uzado de memkontrolo kondukos al elĉerpiĝo.[6] Tamen, je longa tempolimo, la uzado de memkontrolo povas plifortiĝi kaj pliboniĝi laŭ la tempopaso.[2][6]

Memkontrolo estas ankaŭ ŝlosila koncepto en la ĝenerala teorio pri krimo, ĉefa teorio en kriminologio. La teorio estis disvolvigita de Michael Gottfredson kaj Travis Hirschi en ilia libro titolita A General Theory of Crime, publikigita en 1990. Gottfredson kaj Hirschi difinas memkontrolon kiel la diferenciala tendenco de individuoj por eviti krimajn agojn sendepende de situacioj en kiuj ili troviĝas.[7] Individuoj kun malaltaj memkontrolo tendencas esti impulsemaj, nesentemaj por aliuloj, riskemaj, mallongvidaj kaj neparolemaj. Oni trovis, ke ĉirkaŭ 70% el la variado en la demandaro de la esplorado pri memkontrolo estas genetika.[8]

Notoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. Matt DeLisi. (2014) Chapter 10: Low Self-Control Is a Brain-Based Disorder. SAGE Publications Ltd. doi:10.4135/9781483349114. ISBN 9781452242255.
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 Diamond A (2013). “Executive functions”, Annu Rev Psychol 64, p. 135–168. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750. “Core EFs are inhibition [response inhibition (self-control—resisting temptations and resisting acting impulsively) and interference control (selective attention and cognitive inhibition)], working memory, and cognitive flexibility (including creatively thinking “outside the box,” seeing anything from different perspectives, and quickly and flexibly adapting to changed circumstances). ... Self-control is the aspect of inhibitory control that involves control over one’s behavior and control over one’s emotions in the service of controlling one’s behavior. Self-control is about resisting temptations and not acting impulsively. The temptation resisted might be to indulge in pleasures when one should not (e.g., to indulge in a romantic fling if you are married or to eat sweets if you are trying to lose weight), to overindulge, or to stray from the straight and narrow (e.g., to cheat or steal). Or the temptation might be to impulsively react (e.g., reflexively striking back at someone who has hurt your feelings) or to do or take what you want without regard for social norms (e.g., butting in line or grabbing another child’s toy).
    Another aspect of self-control is having the discipline to stay on task despite distractions and completing a task despite temptations to give up, to move on to more interesting work, or to have a good time instead. This involves making yourself do something or keep at something though you would rather be doing something else. It is related to the final aspect of self-control—delaying gratification (Mischel et al. 1989)—making yourself forgo an immediate pleasure for a greater reward later (often termed delay discounting by neuroscientists and learning theorists; Louie & Glimcher 2010, Rachlin et al. 1991). Without the discipline to complete what one started and delay gratification, no one would ever complete a long, time-consuming task such as writing a dissertation, running a marathon, or starting a new business.”.
     
  3. (2013) “The relationship between self control deficits and hoarding: A multimethod investigation across three samples”, The Journal of Abnormal Psychology 122 (1), p. 13–25. doi:10.1037/a0029760. “Self-control is the capacity to exert control over one's behavior and is necessary for directing personal behavior toward achieving goals.”. 
  4. (2015) “On the Meanings of Self-Regulation: Digital Humanities in Service of Conceptual Clarity”, Child Development 86 (5), p. 1507–1521. doi:10.1111/cdev.12395. “The resulting analyses show how similar ideas are interrelated: self-control, self-management, self-observation, learning, social behavior, and the personality constructs related to self-monitoring.”. 
  5. (2007-01-01) “Violence restrained: Effects of self-regulation and its depletion on aggression”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43 (1), p. 62–76. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.005. 
  6. 6,0 6,1 Longitudinal Improvement of Self-Regulation Through Practice: Building Self-Control Strength Through Repeated Exercise. (Muraven, M., Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M.)
  7. Gottfredson, Michael. (1990) A General Theory of Crime. Stanford University Press, p. 87.
  8. (5a de februaro 2018) “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control: Assessing Self-Control with the ASEBA Self-Control Scale”, Behavior Genetics 48 (2), p. 135–146. doi:10.1007/s10519-018-9887-1. 

Bibliografio[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Baumeister, Roy F.; Tierney, John (2012). Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength.
  • Ameriks, John; et al. (2007). "Measuring Self-Control Problems". American Economic Review. 97 (3): 966–972. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.639.131. doi:10.1257/aer.97.3.966.