Nigra filmo

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A high-contrast black-and-white image. White fog or smoke fills the background. In the left foreground is the silhouette of a woman wearing a calf-length skirt. To the right, at a further distance, is the silhouette of a man wearing a fedora.
Du siluetaj bildoj en The Big Combo (1955). Tiu filmo havis fotarton de John Alton, nome kreinto de multaj stiligitaj bildoj de nigra filmo.

Nigra filmonigra kino estas kina termino uzita ĉefe por priskribi stilajn krimdramojn de Holivudo, partikulare tiuj filmoj kiuj emfazas cinikajn sintenojn kaj seksajn kondutojn. La periodo de klasika nigra filmo de Holivudo estas ĝenerale konsiderata kiel etenda el komenco de la 1940-aj jaroj al la fino de la 1950-aj jaroj. La nigra filmo de tiu epoko estas asocia kun vida stilo por serĉi nigrablankan efikon similan al Chiaroscuro kiu havas radikojn en la germanekspresionisma kino. Multaj el la prototipaj historioj kaj multo de la sinteno de klasika nigra kino derivas el la kortuŝa skolo de krimfikcio kiu aperis en Usono dum la Granda depresio.

Kelkaj ekzemploj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Sekvo[redakti | redakti fonton]

Spite la precizan klasikan epokon de la nigra kino en la periodo post la Dua Mondmilito, tiu stilo foje reaperas laŭlonge de la tuta 20a jarcento kaj eĉ al la 21a, ne nepre retenante la nigrablankecon kiel ĉe Basic Instinct (1992) kun devojiĝoj ekzemple al sciencfikcio, parodioj ktp.

Fontoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

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  • Biesen, Sheri Chinen (2005). Blackout: World War II and the Origins of Film Noir. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8217-3
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  • Greene, Naomi (1999). Landscapes of Loss: The National Past in Postwar French Cinema. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00475-4
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  • Hanson, Helen (2008). Hollywood Heroines: Women in Film Noir and the Female Gothic Film. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-561-6
  • Hayde, Michael J. (2001). My Name's Friday: The Unauthorized But True Story of Dragnet and the Films of Jack Webb. Nashville, Tenn.: Cumberland House. ISBN 978-1-58182-190-1
  • Hirsch, Foster (1999). Detours and Lost Highways: A Map of Neo-Noir. Pompton Plains, N.J.: Limelight. ISBN 978-0-87910-288-3
  • Hirsch, Foster (2001 [1981]). The Dark Side of the Screen: Film Noir. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 978-0-306-81039-8
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  • James, Nick (2002). "Back to the Brats", in Contemporary North American Film Directors, 2d ed., ed. Yoram Allon, Del Cullen, and Hannah Patterson, pp. xvi–xx. London: Wallflower. ISBN 978-1-903364-52-9
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  • Kennedy, Harlan (1982). "Twenty-First Century Nervous Breakdown", Film Comment, July/August.
  • Kirgo, Julie (1980). "Farewell, My Lovely (1975)", in Silver and Ward, Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference, pp. 101–2.
  • Kolker, Robert (2000). A Cinema of Loneliness, 3d ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512350-0
  • Krutnik, Frank, Steve Neale, and Brian Neve (2008). "Un-American" Hollywood: Politics and Film in the Blacklist Era. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4198-3
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  • Lyons, Arthur (2000). Death on the Cheap: The Lost B Movies of Film Noir. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 978-0-306-80996-5
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  • Marshman, Donald (1947). "Mister 'See'-Odd-Mack'", Life, August 25.
  • Martin, Richard (1997). Mean Streets and Raging Bulls: The Legacy of Film Noir in Contemporary American Cinema. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3337-9
  • Maslin, Janet (1996). "Deadly Plot by a Milquetoast Villain", The New York Times, March 8 (available online).
  • McGilligan, Patrick (1997). Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast. New York and London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-19375-2
  • Muller, Eddie (1998). Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir. New York: St. Martin's. ISBN 978-0-312-18076-8
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  • Sanders, Steven M. (2006). "Film Noir and the Meaning of Life", in The Philosophy of Film Noir, ed. Mark T. Conard, pp. 91–106. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-9181-2
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  • Server, Lee (2002). Robert Mitchum: "Baby I Don't Care". New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-28543-2
  • Server, Lee (2006). Ava Gardner: "Love Is Nothing". New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-31209-1
  • Silver, Alain (1996 [1975]). "Kiss Me Deadly: Evidence of a Style", rev. ver., in Silver and Ursini, Film Noir Reader [1], pp. 209–35 (available online).
  • Silver, Alain (1996). "Introduction", in Silver and Ursini, Film Noir Reader [1], pp. 3–15 (available online).
  • Silver, Alain, kaj James Ursini (kaj Robert Porfirio—vol. 3), eld. (2004 [1996–2004]). Film Noir Reader, vols. 1–4. Pompton Plains, N.J.: Limelight.
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  • "Variety staff" (anon.) (1940). "Stranger on the Third Floor" [review], Variety (excerpted online).
  • "Variety staff" (anon.) (1955). "Kiss Me Deadly" [review], Variety (excerpted online).
  • Vernet, Marc (1993). "Film Noir on the Edge of Doom", in Copjec, Shades of Noir, pp. 1–31.
  • Wager, Jans B. (2005). Dames in the Driver's Seat: Rereading Film Noir. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70966-9
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  • Widdicombe, Toby (2001). A Reader's Guide to Raymond Chandler. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-30767-6
  • Williams, Linda Ruth (2005). The Erotic Thriller in Contemporary Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34713-8

Bibliografio[redakti | redakti fonton]

  • Auerbach, Jonathan (2011). Film Noir and American Citizenship. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-4993-8
  • Chopra-Gant, Mike (2005). Hollywood Genres and Postwar America: Masculinity, Family and Nation in Popular Movies and Film Noir. London: IB Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-838-0
  • Cochran, David (2000). America Noir: Underground Writers and Filmmakers of the Postwar Era. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 978-1-56098-813-7
  • Dickos, Andrew (2002). Street with No Name: A History of the Classic American Film Noir. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2243-4
  • Dimendberg, Edward (2004). Film Noir and the Spaces of Modernity. Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01314-8
  • Dixon, Wheeler Winston (2009). Film Noir and the Cinema of Paranoia. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4521-9
  • Grossman, Julie (2009). Rethinking the Femme Fatale in Film Noir: Ready for Her Close-Up. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-23328-7
  • Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs (1998). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0429-2
  • Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs (2003). Bad Boys: The Actors of Film Noir. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1484-0
  • Hare, William (2003). Early Film Noir: Greed, Lust, and Murder Hollywood Style. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1629-5
  • Hogan, David J. (2013). Film Noir FAQ. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-55783-855-1
  • Kaplan, E. Ann, ed. (1998). Women in Film Noir, new ed. London: British Film Institute. ISBN 978-0-85170-666-5
  • Keaney, Michael F. (2003). Film Noir Guide: 745 Films of the Classic Era, 1940–1959. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1547-2
  • Mason, Fran (2002). American Gangster Cinema: From Little Caesar to Pulp Fiction. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-333-67452-9
  • Mayer, Geoff, and Brian McDonnell (2007). Encyclopedia of Film Noir. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33306-4
  • McArthur, Colin (1972). Underworld U.S.A. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-01953-3
  • Osteen, Mark. Nightmare Alley: Film Noir and the American Dream (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2013) 336 pages; interprets film noir as a genre that challenges the American mythology of upward mobility and self-reinvention.
  • Palmer, R. Barton (1994). Hollywood's Dark Cinema: The American Film Noir. New York: Twayne. ISBN 978-0-8057-9335-2
  • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. (1996). Perspectives on Film Noir. New York: G.K. Hall. ISBN 978-0-8161-1601-0
  • Pappas, Charles (2005). It's a Bitter Little World: The Smartest, Toughest, Nastiest Quotes from Film Noir. Iola, Wisc.: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 978-1-58297-387-6
  • Rabinowitz, Paula (2002). Black & White & Noir: America's Pulp Modernism. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11481-3
  • Schatz, Thomas (1997). Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-684-19151-5
  • Selby, Spencer (1984). Dark City: The Film Noir. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-89950-103-1
  • Shadoian, Jack (2003). Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster Film, 2d ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514291-4
  • Silver, Alain, and James Ursini (1999). The Noir Style. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press. ISBN 978-0-87951-722-9
  • Spicer, Andrew (2002). Film Noir. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-582-43712-8
  • Starman, Ray (2006). TV Noir: the 20th Century. Troy, N.Y.: The Troy Bookmakers Press. ISBN 978-1-933994-22-2

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]