Ŝipo

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Moderna ŝipo
Itala nemoderna ŝipo Amerigo Vespucci en la haveno de Novjorko, 1976
Kontenera ŝipo CGM CMA Mozart en Hamburgo

Ŝipo estas veturilo, kiu servas por veturi sur aŭ en akvo, tio estas flosanta akvoveturilo. Oni distingas inter ŝipo, barko kaj boato precipe laŭ la grandeco: Ŝipo estas la plej granda speco, kaj boato la plej malgranda. El tio tiuj tipoj diferenciĝas ankaŭ pro formo kaj kapablo por ŝarĝo kaj pasaĝeroj. Barko ordinare uzas velojn (kun aŭ sen motoro), kaj boato estas sufiĉe malgranda por povi esti remata. Alude al sia pelado, ŝipoj moviĝas vente, vapore (per turbinoj), aŭ nuklee (per atoma energio).

La ŝipestro (iafoje nomata "kapitano") estas nekontestebla mastro de ĉio, kio okazas surŝipe kaj tradicie estas la lasta kiu forlasas la ŝipon kaze de vrako aŭ simila danĝero..

La ŝtatoj de la mondo dividas siajn ŝipojn en militan ŝiparon kaj komercan ŝiparon aŭ respektive militfloton kaj komercfloton, ambaŭ kune estus floto.

Ŝipoj estas uzataj sur lagoj, maroj, kaj riveroj por vario de agadoj, kiaj transporto de personojvaroj, fiŝkaptado, distrado, publika sekureco aŭ landlima kontrolo, kaj milito. Historie, "ŝipo" estis velŝipo kun almenaŭ tri mastoj kaj kompleta busprito.

Ŝipoj kaj boatoj disvolviĝis laŭlonge de la historio de la homaro. En armitaj konfliktoj kaj en ĉiutaga vivo ili estis integra parto de modernaj komercaj kaj militistaj sistemoj. Fiŝboatoj estas uzataj de milionoj de fiŝkaptistoj tra la tuta mondo. Militfortoj funkciigas ŝipojn por marmilito kaj transportado kaj elteno de fortoj transmare. Komercaj ŝipoj, preskaŭ 35,000 en nombro, portis 7.4 mil milionoj da tunoj da ŝarĝo en 2007.[1] Je 2011, estas ĉirkaŭ 104,304 ŝipoj kun identigaj nombroj IMO en la mondo.[2]

Ŝipoj estis ĉiam ŝlosilaj en la grandaj esploroj kaj sciencaj kaj teknologiaj disvolviĝoj en la historio de la mondo. Navigistoj kiaj Ĉeng He etendis inventojn kiaj la kompaso kaj la nigra pulvo. Ŝipoj estis uzataj por celoj kiaj koloniismo kaj sklavkomerco, kaj utilis por necesoj sciencaj, kulturaj, kaj humanitaraj. Post la la 16a jarcento, novaj produktoj kiuj estis venintaj el Ameriko danke al la eŭropaj maristoj grave kontribuis al la monda loĝantaro.[3] Akva transporto absolute ŝanĝis la tutmondan ekonomion al la nuntempa energi-intensivaj modeloj.

Historio[redakti | redakti fonton]

Prahistorio kaj antikveco[redakti | redakti fonton]

Floso apud Lychen en Brandeburgio, Germanio; ĝi estas inter plej simplaj boatdezajnoj.

La unuaj konataj akvoveturiloj datiĝas reen antaŭ ĉirkaŭ 10,000 jaroj, sed ili povus ne esti priskribitaj kiel ŝipoj. La unuaj navigistoj komencis uzadi animalajn ĥautaĵojn aŭ teksitajn fabrikaĵojn (veloj. Fiksitaj pinte de fosto supren en boato, tiuj veloj markus la komencajn ŝipotipojn. Tio permesis homojn esplori amplekse, ebligante la setladon de homoj en Oceanio ekzemple (antaŭ ĉirkaŭ 3,000 jaroj).

Ĉirkaŭ la 30-a jarcento a.K., antikvaj egiptanoj konis kiel kunigi lignajn tabulegojn en korpon.[4] Ili uzis teksitajn rimenojn por kunligi la tabulegojn,[4] kaj papirusaĵojnherbon remburitajn inter la tabulegojn por helpi sigeli la kunigojn.[4][5] La greka historiisto kaj geografiisto Agatarko estis dokumentinta ŝip-faradon ĉe la komencaj egiptoj: "Dum la prospera periodo de la malnova imperio, inter la 30-a kaj la 25-a jarcentoj a.K., la river-vojoj esits tenitaj sub ordo, kaj egiptaj ŝipoj navigis tra la Ruĝa Maro tiom for kiom ĝis la lando de mirho."[6] La antikva ŝipo el cedra ligno de Snofru nome Laŭdo de Du Landoj estas la unua referenco registrita (2613 a.K.) de ŝipo aludita per ties nomo.[7]

La egiptanoj estis tre kapablaj konstrui velboatojn. Rimarkinda ekzemplo de ties lerteco por ŝipkonstruado estis la Ĥufua ŝipo, nome ŝipo 44 m longa entombigita ĉe la Piramido de Keopso ĉirkaŭ la jaro 2,500 a.K. kaj trovita senŝanĝe en 1954.

Oni konas ke la antikvaj loĝantoj de Nubio/Aksumo komercis kun Hindio, kaj estas pruvaro ke ŝipoj el Nordorienta Afriko povus esti naviginta tien kaj reen inter Barato/Srilanko kaj Nubio komercante varojn kaj eĉ al Persio, Himjar kaj al Romo.[8] Aksumo estis konata de la Grekoj ĉar havis havenojn por la ŝipoj venantaj el Grekio kaj Jemeno.[9]

Elsewhere in Northeast Africa, the Periplus of the Red Sea reports that Somalis, through their northern ports such as Zeila and Berbera, were trading frankincense and other items with the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula well before the arrival of Islam as well as with then Roman-controlled Egypt.[10]

A panel found at Mohenjodaro depicted a sailing craft. Vessels were of many types; their construction is vividly described in the Yukti Kalpa Taru, an ancient Indian text on shipbuilding. This treatise gives a technical exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding. It sets forth minute details about the various types of ships, their sizes, and the materials from which they were built. The Yukti Kalpa Taru sums up in a condensed form all the available information. The Yukti Kalpa Taru gives sufficient information and dates to prove that, in ancient times, Indian shipbuilders had a good knowledge of the materials which were used in building ships. In addition to describing the qualities of the different types of wood and their suitability for shipbuilding, the Yukti Kalpa Taru gives an elaborate classification of ships based on their size.

The oldest discovered sea faring hulled boat is the Egyptian Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey, dating back to 1300 BC.[11]

The Phoenicians, the first to sail completely around Africa, and Greeks gradually mastered navigation at sea aboard triremes, exploring and colonizing the Mediterranean via ship. Around 340 BC, the Greek navigator Pytheas of Massalia ventured from Greece to Western Europe and Great Britain.[12] In the course of the 2nd century BC, Rome went on to destroy Carthage and subdue the Hellenistic kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, achieving complete mastery of the inland sea, that they called Mare Nostrum. The monsoon wind system of the Indian Ocean was first sailed by Greek navigator Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 118 BC.[13]

In China, by the time of the Zhou Dynasty ship technologies such as stern mounted rudders were developed, and by the Han Dynasty, a well kept naval fleet was an integral part of the military. Ship technology advanced to the point where by the medieval period, water tight compartments were developed.

Roman trireme mosaic from Carthage, Bardo Museum, Tunis.

The Swahili people had various extensive trading ports dotting the coast of medieval East Africa and Great Zimbabwe had extensive trading contacts with Central Africa, and likely also imported goods brought to Africa through the Southeast African shore trade of Kilwa in modern-day Tanzania.[14]

It is known by historians that at its height the Mali Empire built a large naval fleet under Emperor Mansa Musa in the late 13th and early 14th century.[15] Arabic sources describe what some consider to be visits to the New World by a Mali fleet in 1311.[16]

Before the introduction of the compass, celestial navigation was the main method for navigation at sea. In China, early versions of the magnetic compass were being developed and used in navigation between 1040 and 1117.[17] The true mariner's compass, using a pivoting needle in a dry box, was developed in Europe no later than 1300.[18][19]

Renesanco[redakti | redakti fonton]

Until the Renesanco, navigational technology remained comparatively primitive. This absence of technology did not prevent some civilizations from becoming sea powers. Examples include the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice, Hanseatic League, and the Byzantine navy. The Vikings used their knarrs to explore North America, trade in the Baltic Sea and plunder many of the coastal regions of Western Europe.

A 3D model of the basic hull structure of a Venetian "galley of Flanders", a large Mediterranean trading vessel of the 15th century. The reconstruction by archaeologist Courtney Higgins is based on measurements given in contemporary ship treatises.[20]

Towards the end of the 14th century, ships like the carrack began to develop towers on the bow and stern. These towers decreased the vessel's stability, and in the 15th century, the caravel, designed by the Portuguese, based on the Arabic qarib which could sail closer to the wind, became more widely used. The towers were gradually replaced by the forecastle and sterncastle, as in the carrack Santa María of Christopher Columbus. This increased freeboard allowed another innovation: the freeing port, and the artillery associated with it.

A Japanese atakebune from the 16th century

In the 16th century, the use of freeboard and freeing ports became widespread on galleons. The English modified their vessels to maximize their firepower and demonstrated the effectiveness of their doctrine, in 1588, by defeating the Spanish Armada.

At this time, ships were developing in Asia in much the same way as Europe. Japan used defensive naval techniques in the Mongol invasions of Japan in 1281. It is likely that the Mongols of the time took advantage of both European and Asian shipbuilding techniques. During the 15th century, China's Ming Dynasty assembled one of the largest and most powerful naval fleets in the world for the diplomatic and power projection voyages of Zheng He. Elsewhere in Japan in the 15th century, one of the world's first iron-clads, "Tekkōsen" (鉄甲船), literally meaning "iron ships",[21] was also developed. In Japan, during the Sengoku era from the fifteenth to 17th century, the great struggle for feudal supremacy was fought, in part, by coastal fleets of several hundred boats, including the atakebune.

Model of a medieval Mogadishan ship.

During the Age of the Ajuran, the Somali sultanates and republics of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, Hobyo and their respective ports flourished, enjoying a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia,[22] Persia, Egypt, Portugal and as far away as China. In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in what is modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloth and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants.[23]

Middle Age Swahili Kingdoms are known to have had trade port bullship and trade routes[24] with the Islamic world and Asia and were described by Greek historians as "metropolises".[25] Famous African trade ports such as Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa[26] were known to Chinese sailors such as Zheng He and medieval Islamic historians such as the Berber Islamic voyager Abu Abdullah ibn Battua.[27] In the 14th century AD, King Abubakari I, the brother of King Mansa Musa of the Mali Empire, is thought to have had a great armada of ships sitting on the coast of West Africa.[28] This is corroborated by ibn Battuta himself who recalls several hundred Malian ships off the coast.[29] This has led to great speculation, with historical evidence, that it is possible that Malian sailors may have reached the coast of Pre-Columbian America under the rule of Abubakari II, nearly two hundred years before Christopher Columbus[30] and that black traders may have been in the Americas before Columbus.[31]

Replica of Magellan’s Victoria. Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519-1522.

Fifty years before Christopher Columbus, Chinese navigator Zheng He traveled the world at the head of what was for the time a huge armada. The largest of his ships had nine masts, were Ŝablono:Convert/m long and had a beam of Ŝablono:Convert/m. His fleet carried 30,000 men aboard 70 vessels, with the goal of bringing glory to the Chinese emperor.

The carrack and then the caravel were developed in Iberia. After Columbus, European exploration rapidly accelerated, and many new trade routes were established.[32] In 1498, by reaching India, Vasco da Gama proved that the access to the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic was possible. These explorations in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Ocean, reaching Australia in 1606 and New Zealand in 1642.[33] In the 17th century Dutch explorers such as Abel Tasman explored the coasts of Australia, while in the 18th century it was British explorer James Cook who mapped much of Polynesia.

Specializigo kaj modernigo[redakti | redakti fonton]

The British HMS Sandwich fires at the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) at the battle of Trafalgar (1805). The Bucentaure also fights HMS Victory (behind her) and HMS Temeraire (left side of the picture). In fact, HMS Sandwich never fought at Trafalgar, it's a mistake from Auguste Mayer, the painter.[34]

Parallel to the development of warships, ships in service of marine fishery and trade also developed in the period between antiquity and the Renaissance. Still primarily a coastal endeavor, fishing is largely practiced by individuals with little other money using small boats.

Maritime trade was driven by the development of shipping companies with significant financial resources. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath, contended with the railway up to and past the early days of the industrial revolution. Flat-bottomed and flexible scow boats also became widely used for transporting small cargoes. Mercantile trade went hand-in-hand with exploration, self-financed by the commercial benefits of exploration.

During the first half of the 18th century, the French Navy began to develop a new type of vessel known as a ship of the line, featuring seventy-four guns. This type of ship became the backbone of all European fighting fleets. These ships were Ŝablono:Convert/m long and their construction required 2,800 oak trees and Ŝablono:Convert/km of rope; they carried a crew of about 800 sailors and soldiers.

RMS Titanic departs from Southampton. Her sinking would tighten safety regulations

During the 19th century the Royal Navy enforced a ban on the slave trade, acted to suppress piracy, and continued to map the world. A clipper was a very fast sailing ship of the 19th century. The clipper routes fell into commercial disuse with the introduction of steam ships with better fuel efficiency, and the opening of the Suez and Panama Canals.

Ship designs stayed fairly unchanged until the late 19th century. The industrial revolution, new mechanical methods of propulsion, and the ability to construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. Factors including the quest for more efficient ships, the end of long running and wasteful maritime conflicts, and the increased financial capacity of industrial powers created an avalanche of more specialized boats and ships. Ships built for entirely new functions, such as firefighting, rescue, and research, also began to appear.

In light of this, classification of vessels by type or function can be difficult. Even using very broad functional classifications such as fishery, trade, military, and exploration fails to classify most of the old ships. This difficulty is increased by the fact that the terms such as sloop and frigate are used by old and new ships alike, and often the modern vessels sometimes have little in common with their predecessors.

Nuntempe[redakti | redakti fonton]

The Colombo Express, one of the largest container ships in the world, owned and operated by Hapag-Lloyd of Germany

In 2007, the world's fleet included 34,882 commercial vessels with gross tonnage of more than 1,000 tons,[35] totaling 1.04 billion tons.[1] These ships carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2006, a sum that grew by 8% over the previous year.[1] In terms of tonnage, 39% of these ships are tankers, 26% are bulk carriers, 17% container ships and 15% were other types.[1]

In 2002, there were 1,240 warships operating in the world, not counting small vessels such as patrol boats. The United States accounted for 3 million tons worth of these vessels, Russia 1.35 million tons, the United Kingdom 504,660 tons and China 402,830 tons. The 20th century saw many naval engagements during the two world wars, the Cold War, and the rise to power of naval forces of the two blocs. The world's major powers have recently used their naval power in cases such as the United Kingdom in the Falkland Islands and the United States in Iraq.

The size of the world's fishing fleet is more difficult to estimate. The largest of these are counted as commercial vessels, but the smallest are legion. Fishing vessels can be found in most seaside villages in the world. As of 2004, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated 4 million fishing vessels were operating worldwide.[36] The same study estimated that the world's 29 million fishermen[37] caught Ŝablono:Convert/t of fish and shellfish that year.[38]

Ŝiptipoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Historiaj ŝiptipoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Modelo de la greka triremo.

Velŝipoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Komercaj ŝipoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Glacirompilo Yamal survoje al la Norda Poluso, 2001

Militaj ŝipoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Milita ŝiparo estas la centro de la mararmeo. Specoj de militaj ŝipoj estas:

Distraj ŝipoj aŭ similaĵoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

MobiCat - Moderna katamarano sunenergia

Aliaj projektoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

Proverbo[redakti | redakti fonton]

Ekzistas pluraj proverboj pri ŝipo en la Proverbaro Esperanta de L. L. Zamenhof, inter ili[39]:

  • Citaĵo
     Eĉ plej bonan ŝipon malbonigas la ventoj. 
  • Citaĵo
     Granda ŝipo bezonas profundon. 
  • Citaĵo
     Ŝipon rompitan ĉiuj ventoj atakas. 

Vidu ankaŭ[redakti | redakti fonton]

Referencoj[redakti | redakti fonton]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 UNCTAD 2007, p. x kaj p. 32.
  2. How Many Ships are there in the World?. Shipping Research and Finance. Alirita 4a de Majo 2015.
  3. "The Columbian Exchange". The University of North Carolina.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 Ward, Cheryl. "World's Oldest Planked Boats," en Archaeology (Volume 54, Number 3, May/June 2001). Archaeological Institute of America. Archaeology.org
  5. La plej komencaj konataj egiptaj boatoj datiĝas el ĉirkaŭ la 30-a jarcento a.K. kaj troviĝis en Abidos en 1991. Ili konsistis el tabulegoj kunigitaj per ŝnuroj pasantaj tra mortezoj. Similaj boatoj datitaj el 2600 a.K. estis trovitaj en 1954 kaj en 1987 ĉe ŝtonminejoj ĉe la Granda Piramido de Ĥufu en Giza. En 1894, egiptaj boatoj komponitaj el tabulegoj kunigitaj per mortezoj kaj tenonoj estis trovitaj en Daŝur. Vidu: ABC.se
  6. Agatarko, en Wilfred Harvey Schoff (Sekretario de la Commercial Museum of Philadelphia) kun enkonduko de W. P. Wilson, Sc. Director, The Philadelphia Museums. Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century, Translated from the Greek and Annotated (1912). New York, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., paĝoj 50 (por atribuado) kaj 57 (por citaĵo).
  7. Anzovin, item # 5393, paĝo 385 Reference to a ship with a name appears in an inscription of 2613 BCE that recounts the shipbuilding achievements of the fourth-dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Sneferu. He was recorded as the builder of a cedarwood vessel called "Praise of the Two Lands."
  8. Aksum An African Civilization of Late Antiquity by Stuart Munro-Hay (PDF). Alirita 2012-07-09.
  9. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564182/aksum.html Aksum ĉe MSN Encarta, Encarta.msn.com, alirita en la 2009-04-21
  10. (2001) Cultures and Customs of Somalia. ISBN 978-0-313-31333-2. Alirdato: 2009-04-21. 
  11. Liz Burlingame (Aug 23, 2013). Sunken Treasures: The World's Most Valuable Shipwreck Discoveries.
  12. Chisholm, 1911:703.
  13. Greatest emporium in the world, CSI, UNESCO.
  14. (2006) Historical Archaeology. ISBN 978-1-4051-0751-8. Alirdato: 2009-04-21. 
  15. Texancultures.utsa.edu[rompita ligilo]
  16. Joan Baxter. "Africa's 'greatest explorer', 'BBC News', 13 December 2000. Kontrolita 2008-02-12.
  17. Li Shu-hua, “Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole,” Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul., 1954), p.181
  18. Frederic C. Lane, “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass,” The American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 3. (Apr., 1963), p.615ff.
  19. Chisholm, 1911:284.
  20. Higgins, Courtney Rosali (2012) The Venetian Galley of Flanders: From Medieval (2-Dimensional) Treatises to 21st Century (3-Dimensional) Model. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University [1]
  21. Stephen Turnbull, “Samurai Warfare” (London, 1996), Cassell & Co, p.102 ISBN 1-85409-280-4
  22. Journal of African History pg.50 by John Donnelly Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver
  23. East Africa and its Invaders pg.38
  24. Eastern and Southern Africa 500-1000 AD. Alirita 2009-04-21.
  25. "Tanzanian dig unearths ancient secret by Tira Shubart, BBC News, 2002-04-17. Kontrolita 2009-04-21.
  26. (1995) A History of Mozambique. ISBN 978-0-253-34006-1. Alirdato: 2009-04-21. 
  27. Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354 (2001-02-21). Alirita 2009-04-21.
  28. West African Kingdoms. Alirita 2009-04-21.
  29. The Story of Africa. Alirita 2009-04-21.
  30. A Review by AUSTIN HAY (1922-10-22). Africa's Part in the Discovery of America by the. Alirita 2012-07-09.
  31. "Africa's 'greatest explorer' by BBC, BBC News, 2000-12-13. Kontrolita 2009-04-21.
  32. "The European Golden Age of Shipping". Discovery Channel.
  33. Love, Ronald S., "Maritime exploration in the age of discovery, 1415-1800", Greenwood guides to historic events, 1500-1900, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-313-32043-8
  34. Auguste Mayer's picture as described by the official website of the Musée national de la Marine (in French)[rompita ligilo]
  35. UNCTAD 2007, p. 32.
  36. Citaĵa eraro Nevalida <ref> etikedo; neniu teksto estis donita por ref-oj nomataj fao25; $2
  37. UNFAO 2005, p.6.
  38. UNFAO 2005, p.9.
  39. [2]

Eksteraj ligiloj[redakti | redakti fonton]